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Western University
Foods and Nutrition
Foods and Nutrition 1021

Chapter 8: Describe the roles of water in the body and explain why it’s the most indispensable nutrient:  The body needs water to live more than any other nutrient  You can survive without food but not without water  60% of body weight  Found in blood vessels, cells, tissues and organs  Delivers nutrients and removes wastes from cells  Nearly universal solvent0 dissolves amino acids, glucose, and minerals  Cleanses body  Cushion for joints  Helps maintain body temperature  Sweat helps cool body because when we are hot it means our metabolism is working  Shock absorber for inside of our eyes Define water balance, dehydration and water intoxication and provide examples of when these can occur.  Water Balance: balance between water intake and excretion – keep water content constant  Water intake must = water lost  If there is a water imbalance that can lead to dehydration or water intoxication  Dehydration: loss of water o Progression of symptoms: thirst  weakness  exhaustion and delirium  death o Athletes and seniors dehydrate easier o Seniors lose sense of thirst o Babies dehydrate easier than adults due to body surface relative to weight  Intoxication: dangerous dilution of body fluids because of too much water intake o Headache, weakness, no concentration, poor memory, loss of appetite Identify what makes up water input and output and the approximate percentages of each component.  Water Input:  Fluids: 70%  Metabolism: 10%  Food: 20%  Water Output:  Kidneys: 35-50%  Skin: 30%  Lungs: 15%  Feces: 17%  The brain and kidneys regular water output and the brain regulates water input  We lose most of our water from pee and gain most from fluids  We lose and gain water through our skin Recognize the different symptoms of mild and severe dehydration, identify who may be at risk for these conditions and list several factors that can increase fluid needs.  Mild Dehydration: loss of <5% of body weight o Thirst, sudden weight loss, dry skin, low blood pressure, lack of energy, bad kidney function, less urination, fever, faint  Severe Dehydration: loss of >5% o Pale skin, blue lips and fingertips, rapid breathing, weak, thickened blood, shock, seizure, coma, death  Chronic low fluid intake: increases the likelihood of cancer, gallstones, kidney stones, UTIs, heart problems  Factors that can increase fluid needs: Body side, altitude change, fibre- more fibre more fluids needed, extreme weather, age- baby or seniors, blood loss, pregnant, medication  DRI: men: 13 cups women: 9 cups  Diuretic: compound that promotes water exertion i.e. caffeine Explain the differences between hard and soft water and any pros/cons of each.  Hard Water: high in calcium and magnesium o Leaves residue  Soft Water: high in sodium o Can aggravate hypertension and heart disease o Contaminants such as cadmium and lead are easier dissolved  Hard water is better for you than soft water because sodium in soft water isn’t good for you Describe three ways to make water safe to drink, if needed.  1. Boiling: boil for one minute and let cool to kill all the known pathogens  2. Unscented Chlorine Bleach: mix 2 drops of bleach per litre of water and let it sit for 30 minutes to kill most pathogens  3. Disinfecting Tablets: releases iodine and chlorine and is effective against most pathogens Identify the causes and symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance.  Fluid and electrolyte balance: keeping proper amounts of fluids and minerals in the body  An imbalance can occur when we don’t maintain the right amounts in our body and a medical emergency occurs  Acid- base balance: keeping proper degree of acidity in body fluids List examples of and identify features of the major and trace minerals in the body. Minerals: inorganic, chemical elements, natural There are two types of minerals: 1. Major: essential nutrients, found in the body in amounts > 5 grams a. Calcium, phosphorous, chloride, magnesium, potassium, sulfur 2. Trace: essential nutrients, found in the body in amounts < 5 grams a. Iron zinc copper iodine Describe the primary roles/functions in the body, major food sources, health concerns for toxicity/deficiency of the major minerals Sulfate: Role - Required for the synthesis of many important sulfur-containing compounds  Help strands of protein assume their functional shape  Skin, hair, and nails Deficiencies  Unknown Toxicity  From too much sulfate in water, either naturally occurring or from contamination  Diarrhea  Colon damage Describe the primary roles/functions in the body, major food sources and health concerns for toxicity/deficiency of the minor minerals. Iodine: Role: component of thyroxin – hormone made by the thyroid gland that is responsible for the regulation of the BMR Deficiency: goidre- visible lump in neck  It gets so large because the cell sin the thyrdoide gland are expanding trying to trap whatever is available in the body which results in a big lump Cretinism- severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy that causes extreme and irreversible mental retardation of the infant Toxicity: Enlarged thyroid gland  Like chlorine and fluorine, deadly poison in large amounts  Too much with block the synthesis of thyroide hormones but usually only occurring to excessive supplements of it Food: varies with the type of soil it is grown in or on which the animals eat, seafood, iodized salt, 1 cup of milk has ½ iodine needed for the day Iron: Most of the body’s iron is a component of either hemoglobin or myoglobin  Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying protein of red blood cells  Myoglobin is the oxygen-holding protein of muscles  Iron becomes critical when growing and pregnant Roles: Helps many enzymes use oxygen  Needed to make New cells Amino acids Hormones Neurotransmitters Liver puts iron into red blood cells – liver gets its iron from the bone marrow – we can recycle iron We lose iron from nail clippings, hair cuttings, shed skin cells and bleeding Deficiency: most common deficiency worldwide  Iron deficiency has 3 stages: Stage 1: iron deficient stores Stage 2: Iron-depleted stores Stage 3: iron deficiency anemia – severe depletion of iron stores resulting in low blood hemoglobin  We all have iron stores but if you have a low intake you will diminish those stores until they become depleted if it continues you will get iron deficiency anemia which is the most severe iron deficiency  You can have iron deficiency without iron deficiency anemia  If you have anemia you will have blood cell shrinkage  In stage 3- headaches, look pale intolerance to cold and inability to pay attention – can affect you in school and work  Who is most at risk for iron deficiency anemia?  Pregnant women  If you don’t eat meat and not supplement it with other alternatives – unknowledgeable vegetarian  Adolescent girls- stage in life where your losing blood and not so focused on good nutrition – when teens get more independent from eating with their family  Endurance athletes  Infants and young children – infants by age of 6 months need source of iron in their diet beyond breast milk  Even if young kids drink too much milk or juice during the day they fill up on liquids and not enough foods with iron this causes deficiency for iron in kids PICA: Deficiency that makes you crave non-food substances like chalk, clay or soil Toxicity: can occur in large amounts  Iron overload/hemochromatosis o Hereditary defect o Intestine continues to absorb at a high rate even as excess iron is built up in the tissues o Can cause fatigue, depression, abdominal pain o Later, tissue damage, liver failure, abnormal heartbeats and diabetes. DRI: 8 mg/day – men 18 mg day – women, pregnant 27 mg/day Food: clams, black beans, beef, spinach, Swiss-chard, enriched cereal, navy beans Zinc: Role: Works with proteins in every body organ, helps nearly 100 enzymes to do various functions, assists in immune function, wound healing, sperm production, growth and development in children Deficiency: First reported in the 1960s from studies of growing and adolescent boys in the Middle East  Growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, diarrhea, prone to infections, worsens malnutrition Toxicity: supplements of high doses can cause illness or death, loss of appetite, reduced copper and iron absorption Food: enriched cereal, pork chop, yogurt, oysters, shrimp, beef steak DRI: 11 mg/day for men 8 mg/day for women Selenium: Role: Antioxidant  Works with vitamin E & enzymes to prevent the formation of free radicals and prevent oxidative harm to cells and tissues Deficiency: Keshan Disease Toxicity: long-term supplementation, hair loss, diarrhea, nerve abnormalities Food: meat, shellfish, vegetables and grains grown in selenium rich soil Fluoride: Role: protects teeth, makes them stronger and larger, protects against cavaties, Deficiency: when fluoride is missing from the water supply in a community – dental decay is very high Toxicity: Severe fluorosis happens before teeth grown in which is from too much toxic levels of fluoride – irreversible brown stains Food: fluoridated drinking water Chromium: Role: works with insulin to regulate and release energy from glucose Deficiency: Resulting in an diabetes-like condition of high blood glucose Toxicity: supplements can cause skin eruptions, Chromium compounds used in various industrial processes are known carcinogens (using cell phone) Food: whole grains, liver, nuts cheeses Copper: Role: Formation of collagen and hemoglobin  Many enzymes depend on copper for its oxygen-handling ability  Plays a role in the body’s handling of iron Deficiency: Rare and seen in severely malnourished infants fed a copper-poor milk formula Toxicity: Unlikely from foods but can be caused by supplementation Food: Organ meats, Seafood, nuts and seeds, water (may supply)  Interconnected minerals- iron copper  Some of us will get copper from water that we drink from the pipes if they are made from copper in seafood, organ meats, nuts, seeds  In Canada in take of copper is adequate Define osteoporosis; identify key risk factors, how to prevent it and supplement options.  Osteoporosis: reduction of bone mass in older people where the bones become fragile  Called the silent thief  Causes: lack of vitamin c and vitamin D, lack of excessive, Tabaco, alcohol, bad diet, being underweight, estrogen deficiency in post menopausal women  Effect: humpback- up to 6 inches lost, legs stay the same length but the spinal bones collapsed, and cannot protect the nerves, pressure pinching against the nerves (because the bones have collapsed on them)  Diagnosis: bone density test, DEXA, ultrasound, also look at race and ethnicity because they differ for different types of people (i.e. African Americans have denser bones than northern Europeans and Mexican Americans are in the middle of the two), family history and physical activity or inactivity  Risks: advanced age, heavy drinking, steroid use, weight loss, white race  Preventive: As we develop muscle through exercise we develop bone strength, flexibility and strength improve balance which makes us much less likely to fall and break bones  80 year old white women are 3X more likely to get a hip fracture than men Chapter 9: Define healthy body weight.  Healthy body weight is not a number that applies to everyone – more holistic term – arrange of weights can be appropriate for a healthy body weight for all types of people Calculate body mass index, given weight and height either in metric (kg/m) or imperial (pounds/feet, inches) values.  BMI= weight (kg) / height (m)^2  Weight (kg)= pounds/2.2  Height (m^2)= 1 inch is 2.54 cm, 12 inches is 1 foot Comment on how Canadians are doing in terms of weight and how this has changed since the 1980’s.  We are getting fatter because: portion sizes have increased and we eat processed foods- not whole foods  In 2009-2011 32% of children (ages 5-7) are obese  Underweight people cannot fight a wasting disease i.e. cancer, and overweight people have higher risk of hypertension, heart disease and diabetes, stroke, artery disease  In the past 20 years men have a higher rate of being overweight than women  Central Obesity: fat that collects deep within the central abdominal area of the body (visceral fat - readily released into the blood stream)  Subcutaneous fat- (fat layers lying just beneath the skin of the abdomen, thighs, hips, and legs) release fat slower than visceral fat o Increases the risk of diabetes, stroke, hypertension, coronary artery disease o Central obesity may increase the risk of death from all causes as compared to fat accumulations elsewhere in the body Identify the different ranges of the body mass index (names of categories and numerical values) and the relative health risk of each.  BMI is only useful for people between 20-65  Not useful for teens or seniors BMI Category Risk < 18.5 Underweight High 18.5 – 24.9 Normal Weight Least 25 – 29.9 Over Weight High 30 + Obese 30 - 34.9 Obesity Class 1 High 35 - 39.9 Obesity Class 2 Very high > or = 40 Obesity Class 3 Extremely high Explain how body composition is measured and why it is important to know this in addition to BMI.  Proportion of muscle, bone and body fat  Body composition is measured by comparing the proportion of body fat to lean tissue  More important than controlling body weight  No control over our body composition  Muscle weighs more than fat  Identify the maximum waist circumference for men and women to reduce health risks according to the new Canadian Guidelines  Waist circumference: the degree of visceral fatness in proportion to body fatness  Waist circumference has gone up 3 inches over the last few decades  Waist circumference of > 94 cm (37 inches) for men and > 80 cm (31.5 inches) for women: increases the risk for type 2 diabetes, heart disease and hypertension Identify the components that contribute to energy in, energy out and energy balance  Daily Energy Balance: change in energy stores = energy in – energy out  Energy in: consumed calories, anything we eat  Energy out: calories burned, BMR, working out, digesting o 3 things contribute to energy output: 1. BMR: sum of all energy expended on all involuntary activities needed to live minus digestion i.e. circulatory system, respiratory system, (50-65%) 2. Voluntary: gym, walking (25-50%) 3. Thermic effect of food: 5-10% of meals energy is expended, digestion  A small change can contribute to energy stores  Body’s Energy Balance: EER- estimated energy required  Input should equal output to remain balanced Define and describe basal metabolic rate (BMR), including factors that affect BMR  BMR: different for everyone because everyone has different activity levels  Positively correlated with thyroxin secretion – the less secreted the less energy needed for BMR  BMR is lowest during sleep  When you are active you have more lean tissue and can burn more Factors that increase BMR Factors that decrease BMR Exercise Older age has lower BMR Lean tissue Underweight Taller people Dieting Temperature Stress Fever Growing teenage boys burn fastest Calculate a person’s estimated energy requirement using both the DRI (quick) formula and the long formula, using age, gender, weight, height and physical activity factor  DRI Formula (Quick): quick and easy but not accurate for individuals o Men: kg X 24 o Women: kg X 22  Long Formula: takes into account: weight, age, gender, physical activity and finds out the number of calories you need to MAINTAIN current weight o Women (age 19 and over) BOMDAS**EER = 354 - 6.91 X age + PA x ((9.36 x wt)) + (726 X ht) o Man: EER = 662 - 9.53 x age + PA x ((15.91 x wt) + (539.6 X ht) o PA levels: Sedentary - Men: 1.0 Women: 1.0 & Active - Men: 1.25 Women: 1.27 List the limitations of the BMI and groups to which it does not apply and why  Will not tell body composition (how much of someone’s weight is fat) or waist circumference (where the fat is located)  Bad for athletes with lean tissue  Bad for pregnant women  Bad for people over 65 years old Describe 3 measures to estimate body composition and fat distribution and provide pros/cons for each one 1. Anthropometry- fat fold tests using clamps- measures the thickness of the fold of skin from the back of the arm, triceps and lower body cites. This is the best method because it takes measures from different parts of the body 2. Density- underwater weighting 3. Conductivity- Bioelectrical impedance, radiographic techniques, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) a. DEXA- takes 2 low-dose x-rays that differ in fat-free soft tissue, fat tissue and bone tissue, which provides a precise measurement of total fat in the body. A very good method and works in all cases except for extremely obese people b. Bioelectrical impedance- simple, painless, accurate. Determines your body fat by measuring conductivity as the lean tissues make a mild electric current and fat tissue does not. It is a moderately good method Identify a healthy range for body fat percentage for males and females  Males: 12-20% body fat is ideal  Over fat: 22+% and 25% if 40 years or older  Females: 20-30%  Over fat: 32+% or 35% if 40 years or older Recall lifestyle factors that correlate with obesity  Drinking soda, inactivity, bad diet, social eating, money, sleep, fast food, travel, exposure to a variety of food available, alcohol, not sleeping (staying up late get bored and eat) List and describe how physiological and environmental factors influence hunger  Size of previous meal, weather: if it is hot out we want to eat less, if it is cold out we eat more, exercise increases, illness- we need more food but have no appetite, sex hormones increase food intake, stomach adapts to if we are eating a lot or less will adapt to those needs  Eat more fibre and water to be more full  Protein is the most filling because it triggers leptin and supresses hunger  Then fat, then carbs Explain how obesity could have ‖inside-the-body‖ causes  Set point theory: body gravitates to a single weight regardless of exercise, there is a genetic predisposition  Thrifty Metabolism theory: Inuit people store more fat and stay full longer  Genetics: rare, can have inherited tendency to develop obesity but it does not determine it entirely because genes are not the sole factor it is more about your healthy lifestyle choices. Children with one obese parent are 40-70% more likely to become obese Explain external cues to overeat and other ―outside –the-body‖ causes of obesity  Overeating is due to occasions, stress, loneliness, depression, availability to food, time of the day, boredom  Physical Inactivity: some people aren’t obese because of what they eat but because of how little they move Understand what happens in the body to allow weight loss or weight gain  Nicotine decreases hunger so smokers weigh less than non smokers  Smokers gain weight when they stop smoking  Girls will start smoking to lose weight  Fasting for one day one day: the liver will use energy (glycogen stores) from protein to break down into glucose to meet the brains needs but after that (2-10 days) too much protein breaks down and can lead to death  To prevent this: the body concerts fat into ketone bodies  a fuel the nervous system can adapt to using  Low Carb Diet: similar response to fasting, when our body runs low on carbs we break down fat and protein for energy. Ketones form to fuel the brain  Alcohol: used for fuel or converted to body fat and stored. It slows down the body’s use of fat for fuel by as much as about 33# causing more fat to be stored (mainly as visceral fat)  To achieve a good body weight, you must be motivated, make sure your goals are realistic and energy in must be less than energy expended Recall and explain the best dietary strategies for weight loss  Keep records: write down what you eat  Plan it yourself – you have to eat it  Choose realistic calorie intakes (1/2 pounds a week)  Curve calories by 300-350 a day which is moderate and doable  Increasing physical activity  Portion control size-change cup, plate, utensil sizes to smaller  Eat slower  Be a conscious eater, don’t multitask  Nutrient dense not energy dense: you want foods with high energy density i.e. milkshakes  Meal spacing  Eat breakfast to get metabolism started  Be active for at least 30-60 minutes a day  Increasing metabolism and reducing appetite o Short-term increase in energy expidenture is from exercise and slight rise in metabolism o Long term increase in BMR is from an increase in lean tissue  Aerobic activity: promotes release of abdominal fat, improves strength, tones, readily released into the blood stream, i.e. running and swimming Recall and explain the best dietary strategies for weight gain  Increase portion sizes  Eat frequently  Make foods look appealing  Weight gain supplements – but must use with physical activity  Increase caloric intake by 700-1000 calories a day if you want to build muscle Recognize drug and surgery options to treat obesity and describe the patient who might be a candidate for these treatments  BMI≥30 and those with elevated disease risk may benefit from drugs, along with diet, exercise, and behaviour therapy, to lose weight  Extreme obesity (BMI of 40+) with a coexisting disease can consider surgery as an option 1. Prescription: a. Prevents fat absorption i.e. orlistat (xenical) b. Supresses appetite: i.e. contrive, anti-depressant & anti addiction c. Over the counter: i.e. PGX – controls blood sugar, promotes feelings of fullness but is no longer approved 2. Lap Band, Gastric Bypass: candidate if you are obese  Least invasive  A gastric band is placed around the upper part of the stomach which is adjusted periodically  Filled with air  Tells brain you are full  Gastric Bypass: surgery  Dramatic loss, bypass whole stomach, detach intestine, new stomach is smaller and permanent 3. Lipectomy-liposuction  Cosmetic Surgery not for treating obesity  Spot removal of fat  Can result in death 4. Herbal Products  Can cause a weight loss of 1-2 pounds but it is temporary because it is only water weight loss  Side effects: nausea, fainting, vomiting, diarrhea, cramping 5. Ephedra- has ephedrine in it but was banned in Canada due to health risks  Promotes weight loss but has bad side effects that include cardiac arrest, hypertension, stroke, seizure, death and abnormal heart beat Recall some behaviour modification strategies for weight control Chapter 10: Describe several benefits to fitness  Increases calorie intake  Promotes mental health  Lowers risk of type 2 diabetes  Good circulation  Longer lives, more sleep, improved bone density, good immune system, low risk of cardiovascular disease, low anxiety and depression Recall and explain the 4 components to Canada’s Physical Activity Guide 1. Flexibility  Want to increase flexibility activities  Capacity of joints to move, bend and recover without injury 2. Muscle strength  Increase strength activities  Ability of muscles to work against resistance 3. Muscle endurance  Increase endurance activities  Ability of muscle to contract over and over within a certain amount of time without being exhausted 4. Cardiorespiratory endurance  Reduce sitting for a long time  Can perform large muscle dynamic of intense level for a while Define how much and what type of activity is needed each week to be considered ―fit‖  People should spend 30 minutes of activity most days for good health  To maintain a healthy body weight at least 1 hour a day of moderate intense activity  15% of adults and 7% of kids meet physical activity guidelines but 85% of adults and 93% of kids don’t  Increases with education Explain the concepts of overload hypertrophy and atrophy Muscles get fit from:  Overload: extra physical demand placed on the body- increase in frequency, duration or intensity of the activity  Hypertrophy: response to over load increase in muscle size – muscle cells respond to an overload of physical activity by gaining in strength and size  Atrophy: when muscles decrease because of lack of use Describe how aerobic and strength activities can independently benefit fitness and health  Aerobic: requires O2, strengthens the heart and lungs by needing them to work harder than normal because they need to give oxygen to the tissues o Involves cardiorespiratory endurance  Weight Training: builds lean body mass o Provide resistance for developing muscle strength & endurance o Improve bone density, posture, reduce risk of back injury o Muscles adapt to an activity during rest because they build more of what is needed to do the activity you did before resting o Myoglobin iron-protein in muscles that store and release oxygen when needed Provide examples of activities that promote cardiorespiratory endurance and explain the benefits to the heart  Cardiorespiratory Endurance: a measure of how long you can keep active with elevated heart rate o Trains the heart o Increases cardiac output (volume of blood discharged by heart per minute) and oxygen delivery o Increases heart strength and stroke volume (amount of oxygenated blood ejected from the heart toward body tissues per beat  fewer beats needed) o Slowed resting pulse o Increases breathing efficiency o Reduces blood pressure o Enhances ability of the heart and lungs to give oxygen to muscles Explain how the body uses glucose, fat and protein differently depending upon the intensity and duration of activities and depending upon the degree of training  Fuels supporting physical activity o Glucose – from carbs o Fatty acids- from fat o Amino acids- from protein  During Rest: approx. 50% of body’s energy comes from fatty acids and the rest from glucose ( a tiny bit from amino acids) o Once you start moving again, your body switches fuels from fatty acids to muscle glycogen o After 20-30 minutes of activity the body switches to fat as its main fuel  Glucose use and Strorage: o Body constantly uses and replenishes its glycogen o The more carbs you eat the more glycogen muscles store and the longer the stores will last to support physical activity o With a high fat diet you will have the least amount of endurance time (57 minutes) o Normal Mixed Diet: 114 minutes o High carb Diet: 167 minutes o Glucose supplied by dietary carbs are made by the liver o Stored in the liver and muscle tissue as glycogen o Body’s glycogen stores are much more limited than its fat stores o How long a persons glycogen stores will last while exercising depends on both their diet and the type of physical activity they are doing/intensity Define terms such as aerobic, anaerobic, carbohydrate loading, lactic acid  Aerobic: uses glycogen SLOWLY, moderate activity, breath easy, heart beats faster than at rest, muscles extract their energy from glucose and fatty acids during aerobic metabolism, more steps  yields more energy  Anaerobic: doesn’t need O2, uses glycogen QUICKLY, intense activity, requires strength, but doesn’t work the heart and lungs very hard for a sustained period of time  Anaerobic breakdown of glucose produces Lactic Acid  Lactic Acid: by-product of anaerobic breakdown of glucose during intense activity o Production of lactic acid > muscles ability to use it = travels to the liver where it is converted back to glucose  Activity and Glucose - Time affects: o First Ten Minutes: active muscles rely almost fully on their own stores of glycogen th o First Twenty Minutes (of moderate activity): uses 1/5 of glycogen stores o 2 Hours (of vigorous activity): muscle and liver glycogen stores will run out  Maintaining Blood Glucose for Activity: o Prevents exhaustion: o Diet strategy: 1. Eat high carb diet daily 2. Take in glucose during activity usually in a sports drink 3. Eat carb rich food after performance o Training Strategy: training muscles to maximize glycogen stores (Carb Loading)  Carb Loading: trick muscles into storing extra glycogen before activity o Can double muscle glycogen concentration o A routine of moderate exercise, after it - you eat a high carb diet o Few days before the activity increase carb intake  Glucose AFTER activity: o Eating high carb foods after physical activity also enlarges glycogen stores o Have a high carb meal 2 hours after activity o This method speeds up rate of glycogen stores by 300% o Foods with high glycemic index can restore glycogen quickest  Degree of Training affects Glycogen Use: o Trained muscles adapt to store more glycogen to support specific activity o Trained muscles burn more fat at a higher intensity than untrained muscles and require less glucose to do the same amount of activity than untrained o People with diabetes- moderating effect of physical training can influence their glucose metabolism – as muscles adapt to daily activity they can reduce daily dose of drugs o Physical activity can improve type 2 diabetes because the body loses fat  Fat usage DURING activity: o Early in activity, muscles rely on fatty acids from 1. Fat stored within the working muscle 2. Fats from deposits like fat under the skin o Moderate activity will burn MORE fat than intense activity Provide protein recommendations for strength and endurance athletes  Training affects fat use because muscles get stimulated to develop more fat burning enzymes o Aerobically trained muscles burn more fat than untrained o Aerobic training makes the heart and lungs stronger and delver O2 to the muscles better during high intensity activity o Physical activity can speed up metabolism, the higher the intensity the longer the BMR is elevated  Using Protein and Amino Acids to build muscles and fuel activity: o In the hours of rest after activity, muscles speed up their rate of protein synthesis o They build more proteins needed to support that activity o Eating protein with carbs enhances protein synthesis o Athletes retain more protein and use more as fuel o Protein is 10% of the total fuel used in activity and at rest  DRI for protein intakes for athletes: o Adults: Male- 56 grams/day Female- 44 grams/day o Strength Athletes: Male- 112-119 Female- 88—94 o Endurance Athletes: Male- 84-112 Female- 66-88 o Young Adults: Male- 107 Female- 73 Identify vitamins and minerals of special concern for athletes and indicate which athletes may need a supplement  Vitamins and minerals assist in releasing energy from fuels and transporting O2  Deficiencies can impede performance  Nutrient supplements don’t enhance performance  Females endurance athletes are prone to iron deficiency and may need nutrient supplements  Sports Anemia: athletes can develop low haemoglobin (temporary and fixes itself) Explain the importance of temperature regulation for athletes  Measures to prevent a heat stroke o Drink fluid before and during activity o Rest in the shade o Lightweight clothes  Heat Stroke Symptoms: o Clumsy, dizzy, sudden sweat, confusion, headache, stumble, hypothermia- severe, nausea, bum temp of +40 degrees Celsius  In cold weather, you can get hypothermia – below normal body temperature – can pose a severe threat  Even in clod weather the body still sweats and needs fluids  To prevent hypothermia the fluids should either be warm or room temperature Estimate fluid needs for replenishing after an activity  Endurance athletes can lose 2 or more Litres of fluid an hour during activity  Digestive system can only absorb 1L/Hour  To know how much to replenish: weigh yourself before and after the activity and whatever the difference is = water loss (2 cups of water = 1 pound)  Cold water is the best drink for most active bodies because it leaves the digestive tract quickly to go to tissues o It cools down the body form inside out o Endurance athletes are the exception and need more fluids than water alone Explain when sports drinks are recommended and why  Electrolytes are lost when we sweat i.e. sodium, potassium, chloride  In the first 45 minutes of activity: sport drinks may be needed to replace fluids and electrolytes  Sports Drinks give glucose, water and electrolytes  Sodium Depletion: When athletes compete in endurance sports lasting longer than three hours it is very important to replenishing electrolytes o If athletes sweat a lot over a long period of time and do not replace lost sodium, hyponatremia may result  Hyponatremia: a dangerous condition of sodium depletion o Similar symptoms as dehydration o To prevent: replace sodium during long activity and days before activity do not restrict salt in diets Provide examples of beverages not recommended for rehydration by athletes  Fitness and Vitamin Water: o Not the same as sports drinks because they don’t provide glucose and electrolytes  Carbonated Beverages- not a good choice because of the air bubbles from the carbonation make a person feel full quickly so it may limit their fluid intake  Alcohol- diuretic, promotes excretion of vitamins and minerals, messes with temperature regulation, depletes endurance and strength,  Caffeine Drinks: moderate doses of caffeine one hour before performance can maybe help but sometimes there is no affect  Vitamin E: protects against oxidative stress but there is little evidence that it can improve performance Chapter 11: Understand the difference between infectious and degenerative (chronic) diseases and provide examples of each  Infectious Disease: caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites and microbes o i.e. small pox, influenza, turbucleosis, polio o Contracted from person to person through air, food or contact  Degenerative Disease: chronic, irreversible characterized by degeneration of the body’s organs o Don’t come from a straight forward cause like infectious diseases do, rather a combination of 3 things o Due to personal lifestyle choices such as diet, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, genetic history and previous medical history o i.e. cancer Explain the downward spiral in health when there is infection along with malnutrition  Nutrition cannot directly prevent or cure infectious diseases but it can strengthen or weaken body’s defense against diseases  Malnutrition and infection worsen each other – having a good diet will keep your immune system stronger so you can fight off diseases but if you are nutrient deficient, you do not have a strong enough immune system to fight off diseases and the infection worsens along with the deficiency  i.e. someone with cancer who has malnutrition, does not have the energy to fight off this wasting disease and will die Identify some of the dietary risk factors associated with several chronic diseases  Malnutrition can result not only from a lack of available food but also diseases like AIDS, cancers and their treatments because they change your appetite and metabolism, wastes body tissues (similar to what happens to the body during starvation) and body uses the fat and protein reserves in storage to survive  AIDS: wasting/nutrient deficiencies o Nutrition cant cure aids but an adequate diet could improve body’s response to drugs o Exercise that strengthens muscles can hold wasting to a minimum o Deficient and excessive nutrients can harm the immune system  Lifestyle choices and risks of degenerative disease: o Contrast with infectious disease, degenerative diseases don’t have distinct microbial causes like a virus, but rather risk factors o Risk factors: factors known to be related to diseases but not proved to be the cause: environmental, social, behavioural and genetic factors o The same risk factor can affect many degenerative diseases o Sedentary lifestyle affects many diseases o Diet accounts for 1/3 of all coronary heart diseases o Many conditions are risk factors for other degenerative diseases o I.e. a diabetic is likely to get atherosclerosis or hypertension which worsen each other and cardiovascular disease o A lot of degenerative diseases can be related back to obesity o 35% of cancers can be prevented by eating well, being fit Define atherosclerosis; explain the diet that will contribute to it and the possible negative health consequences once it is present in the arteries  Atherosclerosis: everyone has it, but how much? o The most common CVD o Complex inflammatory response to tissue damage o You get plaque along the inner walls of the arteries o If 1 artery that bring nourishment to the heart muscle gets blocked by plaque that heart muscle will die which reduces blood flow, forming blood clots o A diet high in saturated fats is a major contributor to development of plaques and the progression of atherosclerosis o Affects blood pressure – causes blood pressure to rise due to the blood vessels not being as flexible once they become sclerosed o Attracts LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) o As pressure builds up in an artery, the arterial wall may become weaker and swell forming an aneurysm (localized swelling of an artery because artery wall is weakened- it can burst inside you and lead to death)  Abnormal Blood Clotting: o Caused by arterial damage, plaque in arteries, inflammatory response o Platetes (tiny cell like fragment in blood) cause clots to form when they encounter injuries in blood vessels o When a clot is formed, it can remain attached to plaque in artery and grow until it blocks blood supply which kills the tissue o Thrombus: stationary blood clot o Thrombosis: thrombus that has grown enough to close off a blood vessel o Embolus: a thrombus that breaks loose and travels through blood vessels o Embolism: embolus that causes sudden closure of a vessel  Hypertension and atherosclerosis: o Worsen CVD and each other o B/c a stiff artery that was already strained by blood going through is further stressed by high internal pressure List some risk factors for heart disease that we have control over and some over which we have no control  Increasing age, male gender, family history of premature heart disease have no control over  High LDL, low HDL, Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, high saturated fat diet physical inactivity can modify, have control over  Obesity and Inactivty: amplify risk – raises LDL lowers HDL o Worsens hypertension and diabetes  Smoking: powerful risk factor – more someone smokes, higher risk they are ate o Smoking damages the heart directly with toxins and raises blood pressure  Anthreogenic Diet: high salt and trans fat diet raises LDL – diet influences risk  CVD: High LDL and low HDL increase risk of heart disease and atherocolosis o Low ldl and high HDL decrease risk o Chronic hypertension worsens CVD  Diabetes: A major independent risk factor for all forms of cardiovascular disease Recognize the blood lipid levels, BMI range and blood press
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