Foods and Nutrition 1021 Lecture 8: Food and Nutrition Chapter 8

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1/20/2019 Food and Nutrition Chapter 8 - Google Docs
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1J84VIvpqY2HStwCuFuQSGa70BdhpdsTX3B-pDVzXpto/edit 1/11
FoodandNutrition
Chapter8:WaterandMinerals
WATER
Water:makesup60%ofapersonsbodyweight
● Foundin:bloodvessels,cells,tissues,organs
FunctionsintheBody
● Transportvehicle:bringsnutrientstothecells
● Cleansingagent:carrieswasteproductsawayfromcells
● Servesasasolvent:forminerals,vitamins,AA,glucose,etc
● Activelyparticipatesinmanyreactions
● Helpsmaintainbodytemperature
● Moleculesarenotcrowdedinthebody,waterisincompressible
● Actsaslubricant&cushionforjoints
Lubricatesdigestive&respiratorytracts&mucuslinings
Protectsspinalcord&fetusfromshock
● Keepsoptimalpressureoneyeretina&lens
WaterBalance
● Intake:regulatedbythebrain
● Liquids(~70%)
● Foods(~20%)
● Metabolicwater(~10%)
AND
● Excretion:regulatedbythebrainandkidneys
● Sweat(~30%)
● Urine(~3550%)
● Breath(~1.5)
● Feces(~7%)
Dehydration:lackofsufficientwaterinbody
Signs:Thirst,weakness,headache,exhaustion,delirium,andcanendindeath
NOTE:ifyouarethirsty,youarealreadydehydrated
Waterintoxication–watercontenttoohighfromexcessiveingestionofplainwater
Signs:headache,muscularweakness,lackofconcentration,poormemory,lossofappetite
Howmuchinaday?
● Manyformulasusedtodeterminethis
● DRImeets≈80%ofday’sneedforwater
● Men:3.7litresoffluidfrombeveragesanddrinkingwater
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1/20/2019 Food and Nutrition Chapter 8 - Google Docs
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1J84VIvpqY2HStwCuFuQSGa70BdhpdsTX3B-pDVzXpto/edit 2/11
● Women:2.7litresoffluidfrombeveragesanddrinkingwater
● Whomightneedmorethanthis?
● Mostoftheremainingwaterweneedismetfromconsumedfoods
● Bodyproduceswaterfromthebreakdownofenergyyieldingnutrients
WaterTypes
Hardwater–withhighCa&Mgconcentrations
Softwater–withhighNaconcentration
Bottledwater–drinkingwatersoldinbottles–variesinsodiumcontent
Bestchoice–richinCa&Mg,lowinNa
RegulationofBottledWater
● RegulatedasafoodandmustcomplywiththeFoodandDrugact
● Federallawssetstringentnationalstandardsforbottledwater.
● ThefederalresponsibilityfortheregulationofbottledwatersoldinCanadaissharedby
HealthCanadaandtheCanadianFoodInspectionAgency.
BottledWater
● Householdsthatusebottledwater,25010,000timesthecostoftapwater
● Notsaferthantapwater:test1000bottlesof103brands,33%contaminated
● 25%ofbottledwaterdrawnfromthetap
TypesofBottledWaterinNorthAmerica
● Plain
● Mineral
● Flavoured
● VitaminFortified
● ProteinWaterinUS
MINERALS
Inorganic:naturallyoccurring,homogeneoussubstances;chemicalelements
Majorminerals–essentialmineralnutrientsfoundinamountslargerthan5ginhuman
body
TraceMineralmineralnutrientsfoundinamountslessthan5ginhumanbody
MajorMinerals
Calcium(Functions)
Mostabundantmineralinthebody;~99%storedinthebones&teeth
● Integralpartofbones,togetherwithphosphorus[hydroxyapatite–chiefcrystalinbone
formation]
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1/20/2019 Food and Nutrition Chapter 8 - Google Docs
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1J84VIvpqY2HStwCuFuQSGa70BdhpdsTX3B-pDVzXpto/edit 3/11
● Bonesserveasabanktoreleasecalciumtobodyfluidswithdecreaseinblood
concentration
● Formation&dissolutionofbonemineralsinconstantflux–ie.Fluorapatite–fluoride
displacesthehydroxyportion;resistanttobonedissolution(tomaintainboneintegrity)
~1%ofbodyCalciumisfoundinthecells…
● Regulatestransportofionsacrosscellmembranes(nervetransmission)
● HelpsmaintainnormalBP
● Essentialformusclecontraction(eg.heartbeat)
● Allowssecretionofhormones,digestiveenzymes,neurotransmitters
● Playsessentialroleinbloodclotting
● Activatescellularenzymesthatregulatemanyprocesses
CalciumRecommendations
● Needsincreasewitholdage&duringteenyears,withincreasedvitaminDneeds
● Seechartonnextslide
Peakbonemass–highestattainablebonedensityinfirst3decadesoflife
● VarieswithCacontentofdietandCabinderspresentinfoods
● Ie.Oxalates(somegreenveggies)andphytates(somegrainproducts)
● VitaminDhelpsusabsorbcalcium
MeetingtheNeedforCalcium
● Milk–mostsignificantsourceofcalcium&vitaminD;alternatives–cheeses,yogurt
● Vegetables–rutabaga,broccoli,greens(beet,turnip,mustard),bokchoy,kale
● Smallfisheswithbones(sardines);almonds,stockfrombones
● Cafortifiedfoods–tofu,cannedtomatoes,stonegroundflour,blackstrapmolasses
● HighCamilk,fortifiedOJ/soymilk
● Casupplements
● SprinkleaTbsportwofatfreedrymilkintoanyfood
CalciumBalance
● Bloodcalciumregulatedbycalcitoninandparathyroidhormone
● Calcitonin:madeinthethyroidgland,whenCalciumconcentrationinthebloodrisestoo
high,calcitoninactstostopwithdrawalofCalciumfromboneortoslowabsorptionfrom
intestine
● Parathyroidhormone:producedbytheparathyroidglands,actsoppositetocalcitonin
ExcessCalcium
● Kidneystones:collectionofcalciuminthekidneys
● Interferencewithothermineralabsorption
● Constipations
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