Foods and Nutrition 1021 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Blood, Thymus, Insulin

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F & N – Class 3 12:26
THE REMARKABLE BODY
GENETIC MATERIAL AND CELLS :
Genes:
Direct the making of each body cell’s machinery, including
enzymes [proteins promoting chemical reactions]
Provide instructions for all structural components needed to survive
Body’s cells:
Need nutrients [energy, oxygen, water, essential nutrients]
Die at varying rates; replenish themselves every 3, 10, 120 days or once every few
years (i.e. RBC – every 4 months)
Each cell contains a complete set of genes; different ones are active in different types of
cells
THE BODY’S CELLS:
Specialized cells
Grouped together to form tissues & organs; organs work together in body
systems
Fat cells
Specialize to store fat form the fat tissue
Red Blood Cells
Sensitive to malnutrition
Indicator of vitamin/mineral deficiencies
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Figure 3.1, pg 68 – A Cell
THE BODY FLUIDS AND THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:
Fluid & water intake
Important for efficient circulation of fluids to cells
Replace water lost each day; avoid deydraton
Blood & Lymph
Two main body fluids
Deliver oxygen & nutrients to all body cells
Carry carbon dioxide & other waste materials away from body cells
Lymphatic vessels
Pick up most fats from the intestine & transports them to the blood
CV system
Primarily the heart, lungs, arteries, veins, capillaries
Ensures that fluids circulate properly among all organs
oExtracellular fluid – surrounds cells, permits exchange of materials
oIntracellular fluid – provides medium for all cell reactions
Cardiovascular fitness
Essential to maintain; need good nutrition & adequate physical activity
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60-80% of your max. heart rate for thirty to sixty minutes a day leads to good
cardio
BLOOD FLOW IN THE CV SYSTEM:
Associated organs – intestines, liver, kidneys (Fig 3.3, pg 71)
HORMONAL & NERVOUS SYSTEMS:
Hormonal & nervous systems – coordinate & help regulate body processes through
communication among all organs
Respond to need for food, govern the act of eating, regulate digestion, & call for
the stress response
Hormones chemical messengers; secreted & released directly into the blood by
glands
Regulate the body’s reaction to stress; could suppress hunger & affect
appetite, digestion & absorption of nutrients
Regulate menstrual cycle in women, also affect appetite changes in pregnancy
Example: Pancreas releases:
Insulin [stimulates uptake of blood glucose]
Glucagon [stimulates liver to release stored glucose between meals]
Nervous System (+ hormones) – regulate hunger and appetite
Cortex - consciousness regarding hunger
Hypothalamus – physiological reaction to hunger (gurgling sounds, stomach
contractions, etc.)
Concious mind can override
Flight-or-Fight Reaction – stress response for survival; neurotransmitters,
epinephrine, norepinephrine are released
FLIGHT-OR-FIGHT REACTION :
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