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Lecture 19

History 1401E Lecture 19: 19 - Decolonization in Africa and Modern Middle East

Course Code
HIS 1401E
Karen Priestman

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Decolonization in Africa and Modern Middle East
- Influence of British and United States in Iraq in the 50s and 60s
- Deposing various leaders, hoping to sway them in their own interest
- Tried to create a regime in their own interest
Creation of Israel
- British Mandate: 1922-1947
- Balfour Declaration 1917
- British government wrote a letter establishing Palestine as a national home for
the Jewish people
- Peel Commission 1936
- UN Mandate & Partition 1947-1948
- Partition between Jewish and Arab inhabitants
- 68% Arab and 32% Jewish population — territory is split in half
- Arab saw this as unfair and did not want to recognize the Jewish state
- The Jews argued that they required a national state in order to protect
themselves (result of Holocaust)
- Because they accepted the partition, they created the state of Israel
- Independence: 14 May 1948
- Arab-Israeli War: 1948-1949
- Israel was created mostly because of zionism Jewish people wanted a home state
- Palestine was the most favoured option
- Some people argued that Israel was created as a result of the Holocaust
- By 1960-1965, confusing period of shifting alliances settles out to a pattern where the Soviet
Union supplies arms to various Arab nations in the Middle East and United States tries to
mitigate this influence by supporting Israel
Pan-Arab Movement
- King Farouk
- Deposed 1952
- Gamal Abdel Nasser
- Expels British army
- Nationalized Suez Canal (1956)
- Relationship with Soviet Union
- FLN (National Liberation Front)
- Independence for Algeria
- Charles De Gaulle
- French President (1959)
- Negotiates independence (1960-1962)
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