History 2201E Lecture Notes - Treaty 1, Indian Act, Blackfoot Confederacy

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30 Apr 2013
Department
History Lecture 27 Jan. 14th
Treaties
- If the Metis are considered as Indians, they are able to get any benefits from
the federal government that will recruit to Indians
- Metis are not covered under the Indian Act of 1876 and do not have status
- Metis were not considered as Indians in 1867
- The difference we see by the land covered by The 7 Numbered Treaties,
1871-1921 covers a massive piece of territory to gain access to the west and
open up settlement (settlement cannot happen until this takes place)
- They signed treaties as the government needs the land (first 7 encompass
that agricultural area of the prairie west) they get signed quickly, much like
the expansion occurred too quickly
- 5 more treaties later on
- These treaties are signed in the 1870s (1871-1878) one nice thing is that
they match the year (treaty 1 1871, etc.)
- The process of contact doesn’t end with the Huron, Iroquois, etc. in central
Canada keeps going while we are seeing processes of contact on the North
and West coast
Gradual process sweeping across the continent
Perceived as disease and hits the plains groups (die of tuberculosis,
smallpox, and measles) Ojibwa, Cree, Blackfoot Confederacy
By the 1870s, these 3 groups are decimated by disease
- The Buffalo are being taken down in large numbers (technological change
with firearms)
- The Metis are at war with many of the Plains groups, fighting for this
increasingly scarce resource buffalo
- The Plains Groups are starving and sick, and that is the context they are
facing while they are signing these treaties
- The Plains Groups respond by:
Objective is to get the best deal possible with the government when
signing these treaties
Chiefs know they have a responsibility to their people who are sick
and dying that need food and medicine
Provisos put in to provide schools and education (treaty 1 & 2 signed
with the Ojibwa)
- 1873 creation of the Northwest mounted police
- Red coat was representative of the British empire (white boots and white
hat) starts the myth of the Mounty
- The Northwest Mounted Police show how they’re needed when there’s a
group of wolf hunters in Montana crossed the border, going into the area of
Cypress Hills (first nations sanctuary), get drunk, and commit a massacre
(kill 20 ppl, take horses, and go back across the border)
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