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Chapter 9 All the information plus the blanks and extra information said in class

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

CHAPTER 9: THE USE AND ABUSE OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS Required Reading: Ch. 9, pp. 235-269 Addictive Behaviour  Habits that have gotten out of control, with a resulting negative impact on a person’s health  Five characteristics typically associated with addictive behaviours: 1) Reinforcement (some aspect of the behaviour produces pleasurable physical or emotional states or engaging in behaviour relieves negative feelings) 2) Compulsion or craving (individual feels compelling need to keep doing the behaviour) 3) Loss of control (individual loses control over the behaviour and cannot control the impulse to engage in it) 4) Escalation (individuals needs to start consuming more and more of the substance to get the same high) 5) Negative consequences (behaviour has a negative consequence of this behaviour, whether it is with their family, relationships, job, etc.) All of these characteristics are interrelated and occur at some point The Development of Addiction  Many behaviours are addictive, but most people who engage in them do not develop problems  If a person becomes dependent and tolerance develops, the behaviour is likely to become a central focus in the person’s life (when a person become physically tolerant to the substance and larger doses are needed, an addiction is happening at this point)  No SINGLE cause of addiction o The individual, the environment , and the substance/behaviour combine (genetic factors, life events, environmental factors) o Individuals with more trouble dealing with stress may be more susceptible to addiction o Some people may also have a genetic predisposition to addiction (life events can trigger the genetic predisposition, environment can also play a role to trigger the addiction) Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence  “Psychoactive” ~ a blanket term to include drugs and other substances  Drugs = “chemicals other than food that are intended to affect the structure or function of the body”  DRUGS INCLUDE: o Prescription medicines (e.g., antibiotics and antidepressants) o Over-the-counter (OTC) substances (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine products) o Illegal substances (e.g., LSD and heroin) Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence  American Psychiatric Association (APA) differentiates between substance abuse and substance dependence:  Substance abuse involves ONE of the following: o Recurrent use resulting in a failure to fulfill major responsibilities at work, school, or home o Recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous (e.g. before driving) o Recurrent substance-related legal problems o Continued substance use despite persistent social or interpersonal problems caused by or exacerbated by the effects of the substance * Physical dependence may or may not be present Substance dependence involves THREE or more of the following during a 12-month period: 1. Developing tolerance (needing more and more of the substance to get the same affect, or noticing a diminish affect when taking the same amount of a period of time)to the substance 2. Exper
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