Health Sciences 1001A/B Lecture Notes - American Psychiatric Association, Substance Abuse, Caffeine

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CHAPTER 9: THE USE AND ABUSE OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS
Required Reading:
Ch. 9, pp. 235-269
Addictive Behaviour
Habits that have gotten out of control, with a resulting negative impact on a person’s
health
Five characteristics typically associated with addictive behaviours:
1) Reinforcement (some aspect of the behaviour produces pleasurable physical or
emotional states or engaging in behaviour relieves negative feelings)
2) Compulsion or craving (individual feels compelling need to keep doing the behaviour)
3) Loss of control (individual loses control over the behaviour and cannot control the
impulse to engage in it)
4) Escalation (individuals needs to start consuming more and more of the substance to
get the same high)
5) Negative consequences (behaviour has a negative consequence of this behaviour,
whether it is with their family, relationships, job, etc.)
All of these characteristics are interrelated and occur at some point
The Development of Addiction
Many behaviours are addictive, but most people who engage in them do not develop problems
If a person becomes dependent and tolerance develops, the behaviour is likely to become a
central focus in the person’s life (when a person become physically tolerant to the substance
and larger doses are needed, an addiction is happening at this point)
No SINGLE cause of addiction
o The individual, the environment , and the substance/behaviour combine (genetic factors,
life events, environmental factors)
o Individuals with more trouble dealing with stress may be more susceptible to addiction
o Some people may also have a genetic predisposition to addiction (life events can trigger the
genetic predisposition, environment can also play a role to trigger the addiction)
Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence
“Psychoactive” ~ a blanket term to include drugs and other substances
Drugs = “chemicals other than food that are intended to affect the structure or function of the
body
DRUGS INCLUDE:
o Prescription medicines (e.g., antibiotics and antidepressants)
o Over-the-counter (OTC) substances (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine products)
o Illegal substances (e.g., LSD and heroin)
Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence
American Psychiatric Association (APA) differentiates between substance abuse and substance
dependence:
Substance abuse involves ONE of the following:
o Recurrent use resulting in a failure to fulfill major responsibilities at work, school, or home
o Recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous (e.g. before driving)
o Recurrent substance-related legal problems
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Document Summary

Chapter 9: the use and abuse of psychoactive drugs. Habits that have gotten out of control, with a resulting negative impact on a person"s health. All of these characteristics are interrelated and occur at some point. Many behaviours are addictive, but most people who engage in them do not develop problems. No single cause of addiction: the individual, the environment , and the substance/behaviour combine (genetic factors, life events, environmental factors) Psychoactive ~ a blanket term to include drugs and other substances. Drugs = chemicals other than food that are intended to affect the structure or function of the body . Drugs include: prescription medicines (e. g. , antibiotics and antidepressants, over-the-counter (otc) substances (e. g. , alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine products) American psychiatric association (apa) differentiates between substance abuse and substance dependence: * physical dependence may or may not be present. Physical dependence, when some is experiencing the first two, tolerance and withdrawal. Drug use is less common among young people who:

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