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2012.02.09 - HSci 1001 Lecture Review Notes.docx

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

HealthSci Lecture Review Notes Chapter 5Diet and Nutrition o Provides body with nutrients required to produce energy repair damaged tissue promote tissue growth and regulate physiological processesBody requires protein fats carbohydrates vitamins minerals and water o These are the essential nutrientsthey must be obtained from food because the body cannot manufacture themCaloriesthe energy value of a food o Expressed in kilocalories 1000 calories which represents the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of one litre of water by one degree Celsius o Most people need around 2000 calories per day o Fat9 caloriesgram o Protein4 caloriesgram o Carbs4 caloriesgram o Alcohol7 caloriesgram not essential o If you consume more calories than expended they are converted to fat and stored in the bodyProteinspromote growth and maintenance of bodytissue o Primary component of muscle and connective tissue o Form important parts of blood enzymes some hormones and cell membranes o Composed of chains of amino acids 20 amino acids and 9 are essential o Foods containing 9 essential amino acidscomplete protein sourcesExamples milk meat fish poultry cheese eggs soy beans and tofu o Foods containing less than 9 essential amino acidsincomplete protein sourcesExamples vegetables grains legumes and nuts o Proteins make up 1035 of daily caloric intake o Recommended daily intake is 08gramskg of body weightWhen protein intakes are exceeded it becomes fat for energy storage or burned which can cause high strain on kidneysFats lipidsprovide a concentrated form of energy and give some foods a pleasing tastetexture o Help absorption of fatsoluble vitamins ADEK o Insulates our bodies to retain heat o Provides a protective cushion for internal organs and bones o Visible fats represent only approx 40 of the fat we consume o Saturated fattypically solid at room temperature and found in animal productsExamples cheese milk and meat o Monounsaturated fattypically liquid at room temperature and found in plant sourcesExamples olive and canola oil
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