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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Health Behavior Change and Risk Motivation

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2000A/B
Leichelle Little

LECTURE 5: HEALTH BEHAVIOR CHANGE AND RISK MOTIVATION Health Behaviors • Influenced by the social, cultural and physical environments in which we live and work • Shaped by individual choices and external constraints • Early indicators of population health • Can be classified into two broad categories: o Risk behaviours (health compromising) – harm current or future health  Examples: smoking, junk food, alcohol consumption o Positive behaviours (health enhancing) – promote health and prevent disease  Examples: eating healthy, getting more sleep, reading more • Young adults, particularly men, are most likely to engage in health risk behaviours Characteristics of Health Compromising Behaviors • Window of vulnerability in adolescence • Behaviours are tied to peer culture • Image of these behaviours as “cool” • Behaviours, though dangerous, are pleasurable • Behaviours develop gradually rather than being acquired “all at once” Capturing Patterns of Behavior in Canada • Statistics Canada • “To capture patterns of behaviour in Canada, four indicators are presented: two health risk behaviours, and two associated with disease prevention” o Current smoking o Heavy drinking o Leisure-time physical activity o Fruit and vegetable consumption Behavior Change Models 1. The Health Belief Model 2. The Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behaviour 3. Social Cognitive Theory 4. The Transtheoretical Model The Health Belief Model Concept Definition Perceived susceptibility One’s opinion of chances of getting a condition Perceived severity One’s opinion of how serious a condition and its consequences are Perceived benefits One’s belief in the efficacy of the advised action to reduce risk or seriousness of impact Perceived barriers One’s opinion of the tangible and psychological costs of the advised action Cues to action Strategies to activate “readiness” Self-Efficacy Confidence in one’s ability to take action • Use: It was originally conceived by social psychologists in the public health arena in an attempt to understand the “widespread failure of people to accept disease preventives or screening tests for the early detection of asymptomatic disease” (Rosenstock , 1974) o Predicting who would utilize screening tests and/or vaccinations • Used for intervening with health screening, illness, sick role and precautionary behaviors • Individual perceptions – perceived susceptibility / seriousness of disease • Modifying factors o Age, sex, ethnicity, personality, socio-economics, knowledge o Perceived threat of disease o Cues to action:  Education  Symptoms  Media information • Likelihood of action o Perceived benefits vs. barriers to behavioral change o Likelihood of behavioral change The Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behaviour • Use: Applied to many diverse health-related behaviours including: weight loss, smoking, alcohol abuse, HIV risk behaviours, and mammography screening Construct Description Behavioral Intention Perceived likelihood of performing the behavior Attitudes Product of the behavioral belief multiplied by the evaluation of it Behavioral belief Evaluation of the likelihood that performance of the behavior is associated with certain outcomes Evaluation of How good or how bad those outcomes would behavioral belief be Subjective norm Product of normative belief multiplied by motivation to comply Normative belief Perception of how much each personal contact approves or disapproves of the behavior Motivation to comply Motivation to do what each personal contact person wants Perceived Product of control belief multiplied by behavioral control perceived power Control belief Perceived likelihood of each facilitating or constraining condition occurring Perceived power Perceived effect of each condition in making performance of behavior easier or more difficult • A modified version of TRA includes the addition of perceived control over the behaviour and is referred to as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) • External variables: o Demographic variables o Attitudes towards targets o Personality traits o Other individual difference variables • External variables lead to: o Attitude  Through behavioural beliefs and evaluations of behavioural outcomes o Subjective norm  Through normative beliefs and motivation to comply o Self-efficacy  Through control beliefs and perceived power • Attitude, subjective norm, and self-efficacy lead to behavioural intention which ultimately leads to behavior Social Cognitive Theory Construct Description Environmental Factors outside person Situation One’s perception of the environment Behavioral capability One’s knowledge and skills to perform a behavior Expectations One’s anticipation of the outcomes of behavior Expectancies How good or bad one evaluates the outcomes to be Self-control Regulation of one’s own behavior Observational Acquiring new behavior by watching learning someone else perform it and observing outcomes Reinforcements Responses to person’s behavior that affect
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