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Western University
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Jessica Polzer

Kinesiology: psycho-motor behaviour  extrafusal muscle fibre o power producing muscle fibres o causes contractions o run in parallel direction  intrafusal muscle fibres o proprioceptor sense  designed to detect stretch in a muscle  tells the brain the orientation, position and movement of our body  motor learning o internal processes of practice or experience that leads to a relatively permanent change in performance capability  motor control o study of movement  neural, physical, behavioural and cognitive aspects of movement  historical development of motor control/ learning – these 4 contributed to motor learning/control o psychology  Shiffirn – proposed the short term memory system which has capabilities to turn into long term memory -examined how short term memory contributes to learning  proposed that a) The brain acts like a computer – serial nature of informaprocessing b) Memory is different for different tasks (motor tasks vs. cognitive tasks) o engineering  Arthur Melton -soldiers given very simple tests (unrelated to piloting) to determine if they would be successful pilots -Was wrong – soldiers that failed these tests could still be successful pilots  Paul Fitts – forefather of ergonomics -too many plane accident when landing as a result of faulty human/machine interference -found that warning light button and light was crossed (right warning light button activated left light) -redesigned the planes o neuroscience st  reciprocal innervation (1 understood by C.S. Sherrington) -suppresses activity of antagonist muscle when agonist is active -explained phenomenon (ex. walking, reaching) -when stretching arm, agonist is triceps (active) antagonist is biceps (inactive) -final common path at the spinal cord produced muscular contraction o physical education  Franklin M. Henry -examined whole/gross body movements -developed experimental approaches to understand how we learn to produce complex movements  hierarchal organization of the CNS (classical view – not essentially correct) o 1 = cerebral cortex nd o 2 rd= thalamus, basal ganglia, pons and cerebellum o 3 = brainstem th = o 4 spinal cord  brainstem and spinal cord do little/nothing in modifying the signals  locked-in syndrome o lesion to midbrain o causes a disconnection of the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord o not be able to move at all  but can listen, see, etc.  Luigi Galvani (1737 -1798) “animal electricity” o studied how muscles contract o when he was generating static electricity, one of his probes touched a frog causing it’s hindlegs to twitch o Galvani’s conclusion = though that the ability to move was due to electricity in the body  Helmholtz (1850s) o studied speed of nerve conduction o measured time between electrical stimulation and muscle control  used isolated muscle and motor nerve of a frog o more effective and accurate conclusion than Galvani (close to findings of today)  because he tested his experiment by sending electrical stimuli on multiple positions on the neurons -checking for differences between connection speed on different parts of the neuron  because electricity was present in the 1850s -did not have to wait for a lightning strike like Galvani did o conclusion: speed of 35 – 60 m/s  ¼ the speed of light  neuron  neuron plasticity in learning o young children develop new neurons o adults lay down new neural pathways  more dendrite and axon branches to connect with each other  this does not mean that adults are forming neurons  myelin sheath speeds up connection within neurons  a motor unit o comprised of alpha motor neurons and all the muscle fibres that it innervates  alpha neurons (a.k.a. lower motor neurons) innervate extrafusal muscle fibres (power producing muscle fibres)  lower motor neurons  upper motor neurons  diseases of neurons o diseases of the nerves  influences the amplitude of nerve conduction (quality/strength of nerve impulse) -quality of the signal becomes either poorer or stronger  ex. Lou Gerhig’s disease -hard to move, may lose all movement  What happens when amplitude is diminished? -decrease of muscle movement -> respiratory failure -> death o diseases of the myelin  influences connection speed (speed of nerve impulse)  ex. multiple sclerosis -destroys myelin in patches along the CNS -not isolated to just alpha neurons (can be destruction in the cerebral cortex  Sensory (afferent) neurons o transmit signals up the spinal cord  Motor (efferent) neurons o transmits motor controls down the spinal cord  Phrenology (historical view) o determining functions of the brain without science  Different areas of the brain for different functions (courage, hope etc.)  soldier came back with a spear in his head, if he lost his courage, the spear was assumed to have struck his courage area -examples such as this were how people determined functions of the areas of brain  Visual cortex o V1 = orientation, shape and sometimes colour = demonstrates cortical magnification  more neurons within our V1 devoted to center rather than peripheral visual field (not an even distribution of neurons) -allows us to see in high spatial resolution o V2 = responsible for binocular vision  contains a class of cells called binocular disparity neurons o V3D = visual info ->DV-> parietal cortex  support vision for action movements o V3V = visual info -> V-> temporal lobe  important for perception (judgements) of visual images o V4 = works in conjugation with V1 (but with more sophisticated processing) =identification of simple geometric shapes  lesion at V4 would cause an individual to be unable to distinguish b/w a circle and a square o V5 = important for movement motion detection  David Hubel (Nobel prize winner) o patched one eye of a kitten o with time, these kittens never develop the ability to sense binocular cues (aka have stereo vision)  conclusion: critical developmental period for binocular disparity cells (located in V1) o 1 person to record single cells of V1 in cats  discovered two cells a) blobs - colour within cylindrical shapes (an important feature associated with movement) b) interblobs – sensitive to orientation of objects 1. Occipital lobe  contains primary (V1) and secondary (V2) visual areas o V1 = orientation, shape and sometimes colour = demonstrates cortical magnification  more neurons within our V1 devoted to center rather than peripheral visual field (not an even distribution of neurons) -allows us to see in high spatial resolution o V2 = responsible for binocular vision  contains a class of cells called binocular disparity neurons Cortical blindness  lesion to V1  able to process visual stimuli  unable to consciously be aware of visual stimuli o initial part of the brain for processing visual images is damaged  however individuals can a) navigate through an environment and b) pick up objects without being aware of a visual stimuli 2. Parietal lobe  contains primary somatosensory cortex (s1)  contains inferior parietal lobe o critical for planning of movement  contains superior parietal lobe o critical for control of action (online or feedback control of action)  feedback from the environment to ensure that there is a successful completion of an action  contains visuospatial skills o ability to perceive objects and the spatial relationships between objects Visuospatial neglect  lesion to the right parietal lobe  faulty brain processes involved with attention o people don’t attend to visual stimuli from the damage side (left visual field)  treatment: use of prism goggles/wedges o shifts vision into left visual field o effect only lasts a few hours after goggles are taken off  goggles must be used on occasion Parietal cortex  parietal occipital area o transport phase of the movement  ex. moving hand toward an object  anterior interparietal region o provides our body with the ability to grasp 3. Temporal lobe  visual object recognition/perception  ability to comprehend speech o lateralized in primarily the left hemisphere in the temporal lobe o contains primary auditory cortex  adjacent to hippocampus (strong connections with temporal lobe) o critical in the formation of new, long term, semantic, cognitive memories (explicit memories)  damaged patients to temporal lobe still are able to perform motor skills 4. Frontal lobe  functions in working memory o ex. given list of 5 words to memorize, our working memory rehearses and is able to recall these words within a short time period  contains primary (M1) motor cortex o sends motor commands into spinal cord allowing one to move o 50% of neurons that make up the descending (down the spine) motor pathways arise from M1  contains secondary (M2) motor cortex a) Supplementary motor area b) Premotor area  critical in learning new motor skills  contains group of neurons called mirror neurons o critical in the ability to learn through observation  responsible for maintaining personality o Phineas Gage personality altered when struck in the frontal lobe 5. Brain stem  role in basic attention, arousal, and consciousness  all information to and from our body passes through the brain stem  also controls autonomic functions o breathing, heart rate  contains the superior colliculus o controls goal directed eye movements of both eyes (a.k.a. saccade) 6. Cerebellum  involved in the coordination of voluntary muscle movement, balance, equilibrium and muscle tone  involved w/ timing of muscle movement  formation of new long term motor memory (implicit memory) o ex. riding a bike – autonomic function Cerebellar ataxia  complex motor disturbance  caused by stroke of the cerebellum and many other diseases  cerebellar ataxia can cause cerebellar gait o a person walks with a wide base and has difficulty turning People who stutter  one cause may be from the result of a soft deficit to the cerebellum o wiring of the cerebellum is not completely typical to people who don’t stutter 7. Basal Ganglia  group of varied origin nuclei connected to a) thalamus and b) cerebral cortex  play an important role in excitation of primary motor neurons o if basal ganglia is damaged, then there is difficulty initiating movement *red line = excitatory input, blue line = inhibitory input  Substantia nigra (SNr) o responsible for producing dopamine  critical neurotransmitter that is lost in patients with Parkinson’s disease  Subthalamic nuclei o critical for the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain  glutamate  globus pallidus o sends output inhibitory signals to movement related sensors  Parkinson’s disease o basal ganglia does not allow activation of primary motor cortex o substantia nigra -> continuous inhibition of the thalamus -> inhibition of cerebral cortex -> difficulty in movement  results in tremors, rigidness and slowness o loss of dopamine  loss of arousal, attention, movement  Hemiballismus o continuous rotatory movements on one side of the body o fatiguing to patients o caused by lesion to the subthalamic nucleus  Stroke o disruption of blood flow to the brain o ischemic stroke  blockage of an artery to or within the brain  lack of oxygen (anoxia) leads to neural death o Hemmorrhagic stroke  rupture of arterial wall leading to bleeding withi
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