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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

November 5, 2008 Kinesiology 1088 Competition as a motivator Competition is a strong motivational force imbedded in all sporting situations and in many recreational settings as well, however, the coach or leader has very little control over it Descriptors: a situational process that is either zero-sum or non-zero sum and is either direct or indirect Zero sum: one win, one loss; competition Non-zero sum: compete to improve skills; cooperation Direct: me vs. you Indirect: competing vs. a standard (golfing against the course par) Cooperation Working together with others to accomplish a task or reach a common goal Competing and cooperation can be at work together at the same time with any team or group (i.e. cooperate with teammates vs. opponent but compete with them for the starting role or playing time) The competitive process (Martens, 1975)  Each individual experiences the competitive process differently and it may vary from one situation to another within the same person  The competitive process is primarily focused on social evaluation (comparison with others or standards)  Linked stages often influenced by external feedback and rewards Objective competitive situation ---(personality dispositions)--subjective competitive situation ---(abilities)-response---(motives)--consequences--- (attitudes)--objective competitive situation… 1. Objective competitive situation  Comparison criteria is know by others who can evaluate performance 2. Subjective competitive situation  How the person perceives the objective situation  3 orientations i. competitiveness ii. win oriented iii. goal oriented  SOQ (Gill, 1988) – test that tries to discover what orientation you are 3. Response  Approach/avoid
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