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Kinesiology 2276F/G
Craig Hall

September 9, 2013 Chapter 1: Intro to Exercise Psychology Physical Activity: general - All bodily movements that cause increases in physical exertion beyond that which occurs during normal activities of daily living - Eg: working out, cutting lawn (NOT typing or writing notes) Exercise: specific - A form of leisure physical activity that is undertaken in order to achieve a particular objective such as improved appearance, improved cardiovascular fitness, or reduced stress Parent Disciplines of Exercise Psychology Psychology: - A field of study concerned with various mental processes that people experience and use in all aspects of their lives Exercise Science: - The study of all aspects of sport, recreation, exercise/fitness, & rehabilitative behavior Concerns of Exercise Psychology - The application of psychological principles to the promotion & maintenance of leisure physical activity - The psychological & emotional consequences of leisure physical activity (well-being, perceived quality of life) - Sister Fields of Exercise Psychology Rehabilitation Psychology: - Relationship b/w psychological factors & the physical rehabilitation process Health Psychology - Psychological processes related to health & health care (eg. Nutrition, smoking cessation) Behavioral Medicine - Interrelationships of behavioural, physical, & psychosocial factors in treatment of disease & disability - Eg: using imagery and exercise to help cancer patient to recover Why Study Exercise Psychology? 1. To understand the psychosocial antecedents of Exercise Psychology  Adoption  Adherence: voluntary exercise program & maintaining it  Noncompliance: prescribed exercise program & not maintaining it (ie. Do not adhere) 2. To understand the psychological consequences of exercise  Reduce negative & promote positive psychological & emotional states Common Benefits of Physical Activity - Lowers morbidity & mortality rates - Decrease risk of developing diabetes, heart disease - Control weight Reasons to Exercise - Enhanced physical appearance - Improved physiological health/physical fitness - Improved psychological/emotional health: eg. Reduce stress - Improved social relations: eg. Exercise in groups Barriers to Physical Activity - Lack of time - Boredom/lack of enjoyment - Convenience/availability: convenient place to exercise - Environmental/ecological factors: snow, rain - Physical limitations: disability September 11, 2013 Research: Female Non-Exercisers’ Thoughts on Exercise – by Craig Hall et al. Few studies about exercise related thoughts of non-exercisers Method: - 40 women aged 25-75 in 1 of 6 focus groups (small groups) based on age & contingent on their status as a non-exerciser - A non-exerciser: is a person engaging in exercise activity once a week or less in the past 6 mon to a year - Each focus group composed of 5-7 women with 2 groups for each of the following age categories: 25-35, 45-55, 65-75 Results & Discussion: Specific Thoughts about Exercise 25-35 and 45-55 - “Everyday I think about it, several times a day, usually in the morning & at night” 65-75 - “No not really, I do not think about exercise” Thoughts & Feelings about Exercise - All age categories: time consuming, boring, not enjoyable, can be lonely - Can see themselves working hard but not enjoying it: can imagine doing it but not enjoying - Associated exercise with “work” and thought it to be a “chore” Benefits of NOT Exercise 25-35 - “Don’t have to worry about your body looks in comparison to other people that are in the gym. You don’t compare so it’s ok to be yourself. Thus it’s not stressful that way” - A benefit to not exercising is NOT have to be labeled an “exerciser”: this is against the general public stereotype b/c an “exerciser” is generally viewed as more favorable 45-55 - “Instead of time spent exercising, could spend more time with family” - A benefit to not exercising is not having to make the effort to include exercise in our day & using that time to do more important things Emergence of Exercise Psychology - “Philosophy of physical fitness” – since late 1700s - “Fitness craze” – 1970s & 1980s - Increased emphasis on physical appearance - More recently the realization that exercise can help reduce heightened level of stress - Idea that individuals can play an active role in maintaining/improving one’s health Occupational Opportunities in Exercise Psychology - Higher education: university level - Primary/secondary education: help children to become active - Fitness & wellness - Rehabilitation - Business Thinking About Exercise-Related Scenarios How to modify thoughts, feelings & behaviors of these individuals - Case A: work & family & fatigue; not enough time to exercise - Case B: injury, physical rehabilitation & pain; fear of returning to action - Case C: self-consciousness, low self-esteem, negative attitude toward exercise September 13, 2013 Chapter 2: Physical Activity Epidemiology Epidemic - Anything that affects a large number of people; study of patterns of disease, risk factors & causes (at population level) - Inactivity is not a disease but a risk factor associated with many diseases Epidemiology - Study of epidemics; dealing with the incidence, distribution & control of a disease in a pop’n Epidemic of Physical Activity Physical inactivity & Poor diet: - Responsible for 16% of deaths each year, according to CDC - 2 of the leading causes of diseases such as CV disease, type 2 diabetes, & some cancers Industrial Revolution/Information Age - Increased technology - Reduced occupational physical activity - Increased stress Obesity Trends Among US Adults - 1985: a lot of areas had <10% of people over weight - 1996: obesity across the whole USA (most areas had <10% with some had 15-19%) - 2004: higher % of obesity: most areas had 20-24%, some had > 25% Healthy People 2010 - An initiative to lower obesity for the whole population of the US - US Department of health & human services taskforce - Builds upon Healthy People 2000 (the problem had been known for a while but nothing had been implemented) - Created specific objectives for Us physical activity by 2010 - Goal: improve health, fitness & quality of life through daily physical activity Measurement of Physical Activity Behavior 1. Self-report/survey - Questionnaires or interview – can reach a large number of people by doing online - Daily activity logs - Physical Activity recall: issue because people have to recall what they did. The longer time lapse  less reliable - Eg: Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire  People can remember very well within the past week, beyond that  not good 2. Objective/technological devices - Heart rate monitor - Pedometer - Accelerometer - GPS - Preferred to the subjective measure of self-report  In research, we typically use both 3. Observation - Direct or indirect. Eg: observe class attendance - Disadvantage: labour intensive – monitor the activity - Usually look at group info, not individual Epidemiology of Physical (In)Activity: 5 W’s 1. Who? - To what extent are individuals within a particular society physically active? 2. Where? - Where are people most likely to engage in Physical Activity? (country, region) 3. When? - What variations exist in Physical Activity pattern
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