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Endocrine System Notes.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 3222A/B
Dan Belliveau

Anatomy Study Notes Endocrine 1THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEMLecture 7 Endocrine SystemEndocrine SystemIntegration and regulation of body systemsMost cells of body are affect by hormonesMostly of epithelial originHormones can alter metabolismregulate growthdevelopmentinfluence reproductive processesHormones rely upon receptors to initiate actionsTwo Kinds of GlandsExocrine o Secret products into ducts that deliver to body cavitiesouter surfaceo Dont have hormones o Example gall bladder secretes bileEndocrine o Ductless o Secrete specific chemicals hormones o Released directly into interstitial fluid surrounding cells o Taken up by rich vascularlymphatic drainage that surrounds organs blood carries them throughout body o Hormones released into whole body but only specific target organs respondPure Endocrine Organs ONLY MAKE HORMONESPineal glandParathyroid glandAdrenal glandThyroid glandPituitary glandMixed Endocrine Organs Will secrete some hormones just not primary roleHormones produced though are very importantOrgans dispersed through body o Cranial cavity o Thyroid gland in neck o Abdominal o EtcAnatomy Study Notes Endocrine 2 Hormonal ChemistryAmino acid o Derived from amino acids o Most hormones are peptide basedo Molecular size varies greatlyFrom amino acid to proteins o Affect target cell by binding to receptorHormones bind to receptor surface found in plasma membrane of cellSteroids o Derived from cholesterol o Only gonadal and adrencortical produce steroid hormones o Lipid soluble because of cholesterolPlasma membrane made up of lipids o Diffuse into target cells through plasma membrane o Bind intracellular receptor to transmit signals receptor inside cellComparing Nervous and Endocrine Systems Characteristic Nervous System Endocrine System Neurotransmitters Hormones Mediator molecules Synapse between one axon Hormones released into Site of Action and dendrite or target cell circulation travel and bind to receptors in membrane of cellAll muscle cells smooth Almost all cells Types of target muscles organs other cells neurons Milliseconds very fast Epinephrineseconds Growth Time until Action hormones hours days Impact of neural impulse Seconds hours days Duration of action millisecondsHormonal ActionAlter cell activityResponse depends on target cells 1 Alters plasma membrane allow cell to be more permeable or to secrete 2 Stimulates protein synthesis Growth hormone muscle and bone building 3 Activatesdeactivates enzymes changing cellular processes 4 Induces secretary activity Insulin and glucagon release glucose 5 Stimulates mitosis cell divisionTarget CellsHormones displace specificity due to receptors Molecular triggersActivation depends on three factors
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