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Chapter 6-9.docx

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Kinesiology 3388A/B

Chapter 6-9: Group Composition Outline - Definition - Amount of Group Resources - Psychosocial attributes - ability/skill - Variability in Group Resources - Overview - Task type and diversity - Compatibility - Consequences of incompatibility - Coach-athlete compatibility Group Composition Defined - The properties represented by ... persons who are members of the group (McGrath, 1964) The Amount of Group Resources - i.e., total or average - e.g., "you can never have too many goal scorers" Amount of Psychosocial Attributes: Social and Work Groups - Recent studies of group conposition, have focused on the "Big Five" personality traits (i.e., what happend to the group when more members possess these traits in larger amounts?) - Trait - a relatively enduring internal attribute or disposition that predisposes a person to behave in a specific way The Big 5 Personality Traits 1. Extraversion ... outgoing, sociable, talkative 2. Neuroticism ... insecure, anxious, depressed 3. Conscientiousness ... responsible, diligent, organized 4. Agreeableness ... cooperative, affable, collegial 5. Open to Experience ... open-minded, inquisitive Amount: Social and Work Groups - Peeters et al (2006) ... meta analysis of elevation (amount) of big five personality traits within the group and group performance - Found: increased agreeableness and conscientiousness associated with superior work group performance The Amount of Psycho-Social Attributes: Sport Teams - Martens (1970) - Examined individual motive and team success - Tested TASK and AFFILIATION motive of 1200 athletes on 144 teams - Computed average team score - Teams with HIGH AFFILIATION motive: - Team success low - Individual satisfaction high - Teams with LOW AFFILIATION motive: - Team success high - Individual satisfaction low The Amount of Individual Ability: Sport Teams - Jones (1974) - Examined prediction of team success from the amount of resources (skills) in sport Question for Consideration: What sport is Sports Illustrated most likely to have the greatest success in predicting order of finish. Why? - Baseball 0.94 - Football 0.91 - Ladies' Tennis 0.80 - Men's Tennis 0.70 - Basketball 0.60 How Can Group Dynamics Explain Jones' Results? - Coaches can have the greatest impact in BASKETBALL and the least in BASEBALL - WHY? What is coaching doing? - It is: Reducing Coordinatino Losses and Motivation Losses (see Figure 1 in textbook) Group Effectiveness = Potential Productivity (Resources) - Process Losses Baseball = less coordination = fewer chances for process losses Basketball = high coordination = more chances for process losses Chapter 8: Variability (Diversity) in Group Resources Diversity in Resources Defined • Refers to the heterogeneity (composed of dissimilar parts) in the characteristics of individual members of the group • Homogeneity...encourages a group of sense. Birds of a feather flock together, ande create a more distint entity when they do. People too form a better unit if they are alike Homogeneity/Heterogeneity in Groups • Members of any group are both • Homogeneous in characteristics (similar) and… • Heterogeneous in characteristics (different, diverse) Diversity in Sport: Some Examples • ETHNICITY: 1981-2003: percent of Canadians in NHL decreases from 83% to 54%; Europeans increase from 8% to 33% • GENDER: 1896-2000: percent of female participation in Summer Olympics increases from 0% to 38.2% The Importance of Understanding Diversity: • Diversity can influence social interactions and communications (e.g., ethnicity) • Can influence group objectives (e.g., age) • Can influence group cohesion (e.g., race) • Can influence group performance (e.g., knowledge & skills) Task Type and Variablility in Resources The nature of the group task (and the resulting way in which the group's product is produced) influences whether homogeneity or heterogeneity of member characteristics (or neither) is desirable Type of Task Description Best Type of Resources Disjunctive Group product Heterogeneity influenced by best member (e.g., math) Conjunctive Group product Homogeneity influenced by worst member (e.g., mountain climbing) Additive Group product sum of Issue is irrelevant members (e.g., tug of war) Compensatory Group product average Issue is irrelevant of members (e.g., judging) Race Diversity in Member Resources • Aamodt et al. (1983) examined relationship between team racial heterogeneity and team performance in college basketball • Found: • Slightly heterogeneous teams (i.e., 4 and 1) performed better than both • Completely homogenous teams (i.e., 5 and 0) • Heavily heterogeneous teams (i.e., 3 and 2) Age Variability in Member Resources • Timmerman (2001) used archival data to examine relationship between diversity in age and team performance in professional basketball and baseball • Found: • Basketball: increased age diversity, decreased team success • Baseball: age diversity unrelated to team success Skill Variability in Member Resources • Widmeyer & Loy (1981) examined relationship between variability in tennis ability and do
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