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Lecture 3

Kinesiology 1088A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Critical Role, Social Comparison Theory, Operant Conditioning

Course Code
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

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Kin 1088a – Class 3 12:13
1. Both situation and personal traits motivate participants
2. It is important for a leader and the participant to understand what
motivates individual: multiple motives, competing motives, shared and/or
unique motives, motives change over time (do I study or go to the gym?)
3. Structure or change the environment to enhance motivation
4. Critical role of the leader in influencing motivation of participants
(coaching style
5. Undesirable motives can be changed through behaviour motivation
Token Rewards as Motivators
Reward – “things” used to modify or manipulate behaviour - material
rewards (ie. trophy, tshirts, medals, etc.)
Reinforcement – personal interactions – verbal and non-verbal
Token rewards – aka:
Behaviour Modification
Operant Conditioning
Token Economies
***Contingency Management***
Contingency – relationship between a behaviour and its consequence
Contingency Management – the regulation of behaviour by use of
tokens to influence or alter outcomes
Examples of token rewards:
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oFree Time (work hard in practice = don’t have to run wind
Undesirable behaviours can be eliminated through use of token rewards
Ex. Text pg 136 – Change behaviours of a swim team
Desirable behaviours can be enhanced through use of token rewards
Ex. Text pg 135 – Improve supportive and positive communication
and increase shooting proficiency of a BB team
Token rewards have a spill over effect on non-target behaviours
Ex. BB camp wanted to increase shooting precision, performance,
etc; earned coloured rings for skill execution that can be exchanged
for treats at tuck shop
Researchers observed:
oSatisfaction and enjoyment during practice
oAttendance and promptness
oInterest and attitudes
oConformance to rules
oSocial interaction (coach/athlete)
oStatements of approval – less complaining
o**Weren’t going for these but they happened, SPILLOVER**
Token rewards can be used to improve individual skills and/or task
performance – not just used to change behaviours
1. Target only a couple behaviours/skills/tasks and define/explain them in
readily observable terms
2. State the contingencies/outcomes clearly (ex. three strikes and you’re off
the team, etc)
3. Monitor the target behaviours consistently – use assistants to record (ex.
treat everyone fairly, reward equally to all players, etc)
4. Provide meaningful public feedback that focuses on self-improvement, not
social comparison (it will occur naturally) (ex. BAD – Betty, look at how
Alice is doing it, do it like that)
5. Use a very simple reward system and be consistent in the application of
the rewards (candy bars, etc. Make it more about performance than
6. Think and start small, then expand
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