Kinesiology 1088A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Habituation, Virtual Reality, Hawthorne Effect

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Kin – Class 14 12:31
The Practice Session as a Motivator:
1. Increased motivation can be achieved through the introduction of Variety or Novelty
during practice
a. There is a need to habituate skills and techniques for optimum performance or
b. At some point, routine, and repetition become boring
b.i. So: we need to teach or repeat the same skills but with a variation in drills
2. Motivation can be enhanced by changing practice routines
a. Order or sequence of practice segments can be altered
b. Change players positions or responsibilities for a portion of practice (also
generates appreciation for roles of others)
c. Alter rules or adapt games to meet specific needs (ex. focus on particular skills or
strategies for all or part of a practice)
c.i. BUT: don’t change just for change sake – maintain some specific goal
direction and explain the reason for the change(s) to the participants)
3. Motivation can be enhanced simply by providing special attention to the participant(s)
a. Hawthorne Effect (1939)
a.i. Purpose – to examine the influence of different aspects of the work
environment on productivity and moral
a.ii. Conditions in the Hawthorne plant were systematically altered (changed
lighting, ventilation, etc)
a.iii. Changes produced an increase in productivity (regardless of what was
changed, productivity increased)
a.iv. Conclusion – wasn’t the changes made as much as the special attention that
was given to the employees
b. Other research support for the effects of change and variety in practice sessions
1. Stimulus Seeking
a. Humans exhibit needs beyond the satisfaction of basic physiological drives
b. Activity
c. Curiosity
d. Manipulation
e. Exploration
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