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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B

Chapter 1: Organizational Behaviour and Management 05/02/2013 4:52:00 PM Learning Objectives: 1. Organizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort. The basic characteristic of organizations is that they involve the coordinated efforts of people working together to accomplish common goals. 2. Organizational behaviour refers to the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in an organizational context. The field of organizational behaviour systematically studies these attitudes and behaviours and provides advice about how organizations can manage them effectively. The goals of the field include the prediction, explanation, and management of organizational behaviour. 3. Management is the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others. It consists of acquiring, allocating, and utilizing physical and human resources to accomplish goals. 4. The classical view of management advocated a high degree of employee specialization and a high degree of coordination of labour from the top of the organization. Taylor’s scientific management and Weber’s views on bureaucracy are in line with the classical position. The human relations movement pointed out the “people problems” that the classical management style sometimes provoked and advocated more interesting job design, more employee participation in decisions, and less centralized control. 5. The contemporary contingency approach to management suggests that the most effective management styles and organizational designs are dependent on the demands of the situation. 6. Research on what managers do shows that they fulfill interpersonal, informational, and decisional roles. Important activities include routine communication, traditional management, networking, and human resource management. Managers pursue agendas through networking and use intuition to guide decision making. The demands on managers vary across cultures. A good grasp of organizational behaviour is essential for effective management. 7. A number of societal and global trends are shaping contemporary management concerns, including local and global diversity; changes in employee-organization relationships; the need to improve quality, speed, and flexibility; talent management; and a focus on corporate social responsibility. Chapter 2: Personality and Learning 05/02/2013 4:52:00 PM Learning Objectives: 1. Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way we interact with our environment. It has more impact on behaviour in weak situations than in strong situations. 2. According to the dispositional approach, stable individual characteristics influence people’s attitudes and behaviours. The situational approach argues that characteristics in the work environment influence people’s attitudes and behaviour. The interactionist approach posits that organizational behaviour is a function of both dispositions and the situation. 3. The five-factor model consists of five basic dimensions of personality: a. Extraversion b. Emotional stability / neuroticism c. Agreeableness d. Conscientiousness e. Openness to experience Research has found that the “Big Five” are related to job performance, motivation, job satisfaction, and career outcomes. 4. People who have in internal locus of control are more satisfied with their jobs, earn more money, and achieve higher organizational positions. High self-monitors have good communication skills and persuasive abilities and are more likely to change employers and locations and to receive more promotions that individuals who are low self-monitors. People with high self-esteem tend to make more fulfilling career decisions, to exhibit higher job satisfaction and job performance, and to be generally more resilient to the strains of everyday work-life. 5. People who are high on positive affectivity experience positive emotions and moods and tend to view the world in a positive light, including themselves and other people. People who are high on negative affectivity experience negative emotions and moods and tend to ciew the world in a negative light. Proactive personality is a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment. General self-efficacy is a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations. Core self-evaluations refer to a broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits. 6. Learning occurs when practice or experience leads to a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential. The content of learning in organizations consists of practical, intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and cultural awareness. 7. Operant learning occurs as a function of the consequences of behaviour. If some behaviour is occurring regularly or increasing in probability, you can assume that it is being reinforced. If the reinforcer is added to the situation following the behaviour, it is a positive reinforcer. If the reinforcer is removed from the situation following the behaviour, it is a negative reinforcer. 8. Behaviour is learned quickly when it is reinforced immediately and continuously. Behaviour tends to be persistent under reduced or terminated reinforcement when it is learned under conditions of delayed or partial reinforcement. 9. If some behaviour decreases in probability, you can assume that it is being either extinguished or punished. If the behaviour is followed by no observable consequence, it is being extinguished; that is, some reinforcer that was maintaining the behaviour is followed by the application of some unpleasant consequence, it is being punished. 10. According to social cognitive theory, people have the cognitive capacity to refulate and control their own thoughts, feelings, motivation and actions. The main components of social cognitive theory are observational learning, self-efficacy, and self-regulation. Observational learning is the process of imitating others. Models are most likelyto be imitated when they are high in status, attractive, competent, credible, successful, and vivid. Self-efficacy is the belief that one can successfully perform a specific task and is influenced by performance mastery, observation of others performing the task, verbal persuasion and social influence, and physiological arousal. Self-regulation occurs when people use learning principles to manage their own behaviour, thus reducing the need for external control. Aspects of self-regulation include collecting self- observation data, observing models, goal setting, rehearsing, and using self-reinforcement. 11. Organizational learning practices include organizational behaviour modification, employee recognition programs, training programs, and career development. Organizational behaviour modification is the systematic use of learning principles to influence organizational behaviour. Companies have successfully used it to improve employees’ attendance, task performance, and workplace safety. Employee recognition programs are formal organizational programs that publicly recognize and reward employees for specific behaviours. Training programs involve planned organizational activities that are designed to facilitate knowledge and skill acquisition to change behaviour and improve performance. Career development is an ongoing process in which individuals progress through a series of stages that consists of a unique set of issues, themes, and tasks. It involves a career planning and career management component. Chapter 3: Perception, attribution, and diversity 05/02/2013 4:52:00 PM Learning Objectives: 1. Perception involves interpreting the input from our senses to provide meaning to our environment. Any instance of perception involves a perceiver, a target, and a situational context. The experience, needs and emotions of the perceiver affect perception, as does the ambiguity of the target. 2. According to social identity theory, people form perceptions of themselves and others based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories. Bruner’s model of the perceptual process suggests that we are very receptive to cues provided by the target and the situation when we encounter an unfamiliar target. However, as we discover familiar cues, we quickly categorize the target and process other cues in a selective manner to maintain a consistent and constant picture of the target. 3. The main biases in person perception include primacy, recency, implicit personality theory, reliance on central traits, projection, and stereotyping. Stereotypes of gender, age, race, and ethnicity are especially problematic for organizations. 4. Attribution is the process of assigning causes or motives to people’s behaviour. The observer is often interested in determining whether the behaviour is due to dispositional (internal) or situational (external) causes. Behaviour is likely to be attributed to the disposition of the actor when the behaviour: a. Is performed consistently b. Differs from that exhibited by other people c. Occurs in a variety of situations or environments An opposite set of cues will prompt a situational attribution. 5. The tendency of observers to overemphasize dispositional attributions is known as the fundamental attribution error. In contrast, actors are more likely to explain their own behaviour in situational terms, and this actor- observer difference in attributions is known as the actor-observer effect. Our tendency to take credit for success and to deny r
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