Chapter 9 Leadership MY NOTES.docx

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

\Chapter 9 Leadership What is leadership - Leadership: the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context - Enhancing the productivity, innovation, satisfaction and commitment of the workforce - Strong effect on an organization’s strategy, success and very survival - Strategic leadership: leadership that involves the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization - can provide an organization with a sustainable competitive advantage by helping their organizations compete in turbulent and unpredictable environments and by exploiting growth opportunities - any member can exert leadership - manager, executive, supervisor and department head occupy formal or assigned leadership roles - EXPECTED to influence others - Some fail to so - Informal leadership roles are being well liked or perceived as highly skilled to exert influence Are leader born? The search for leadership traits - Those who become leaders and do a good job of it possess a special set of traits that distinguish them from the masses of followers. Research on leadership traits - Traits: individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability and personality - Intelligence, energy, self-confidence, dominance, motivation to lead, emotional stability, honesty and integrity, need for achievement - Three of the big five dimensions of personality (agreeableness, extraversion and openness to experience) are related to leadership behaviours Limitations of the trait approach - It is difficult to determine whether traits make the leader of whether the opportunity for leadership produces traits. - We have little information about how to train and develop leaders and no way to diagnose failures of leadership - Failure to take into account the situation in which leadership occurs - Summary, although there are traits associated with leadership success, traits alone are no sufficient for successful leadership, precondition that leader must take to be successful The behaviour of leaders - Trait approach is mainly concerned with what leaders bring. - Limitations led to interest in what leaders DO in group settings - Behaviours of certain groups members that caused them to become leaders - Is there a particular leadership style that is more effective than other possible styles Consideration and initiating structure - Consideration: the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for ees - Seen as friendly and egalitarian, expresses appreciation and support and is protective of group welfare - Initiating structure: the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment - Structuring leader clearly defines and organizes his or her role and the roles of followers, stresses standard procedures, schedules the work to be done Consequences of consideration and structure - Consideration and initiating structure both contribute positively to ees motivation, job satisfaction, and leader effectiveness. - Consideration tends to be more strongly related to follower satisfaction (leader satisfaction and job satisfaction) - Initiating structure is strongly related to leader job performance and group performance Leader reward and punishment behaviours - Leader reward behaviour: the leader’s use of compliment, tangible benefits amd deserved special treatment - Rewards are made contingent on performance, ees should perform at a high level and experience job satisfaction. Under this leadership ees have a clear picture of what is expected of them - Leadership punishment behaviour: the leader’s use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and the active withholding of rewards - Contingent leader reward behaviour was found to be positively related to ees perceptions, attitudes, and behaviour - Leadership punishment behaviour good when contingent and bad when not - Key to effective reward and punishment is that it be administered contigent on ee behaviour and performance Situational theories of leadership - Situation refers to the setting in which influence attempts occur - The effectiveness of a leadership style is contingent to the setting Fiedler’s contingency theory and cognitive resource theory - Contingency theory: Theory that states that the association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence - Least preferred co-worker: a current or past co-worker with whom a leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a task - that is how leadership orientation is measured - person with a high LPC can be considered relationship oriented - Low LPC can be considered task oriented - Fiedler has argued that the LPC score reveals a personality trait that reflects the leader’s motivational structure - High LPC leaders are motivated to maintain interpersonal relations, while low LPC leaders are motivated to accomplish the task - LPC is attitude of the leader toward work relationships Situational favourableness - Situational is the contingency part - It specifies when a particular LPC orientation should contribute most to group effectiveness - Factors that affect situational favourableness  Leader-member relations – relationship between the leader and the group member is good, the leader is in a favourable situation to exert influence  Task structure – task at hand is highly structured, the leader should be able to exert considerable influence on the group  Position power – formal authority granted to the leader by the organization to tell others what to do. More the more favourable - Fiedler says the situation is most favourable for leadership when leader-member relations are good, the task is structured and the leader has strong position power Research evidence Cognitive resource theory - Cognitive resource theory – a leadership theory that focuses on the conditions in which a leader’s cognitive resources (intelligence, expertise and experience) contribute to effective leadership House’s path-goal theory - Robert house invented - Concerned with the situations under which various leader behaviours (directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented) are most effective - Most important activities of leaders are those that clarify the paths to various goals of interest to ees - Promotion, accomplishment, pleasant work climate - Opportunity to achieve goals should promote job satisfaction etc - The effective leader forms a connection between ee goals and organizational goals. - Leaders must make rewards dependent on performance and ensure that ees have a clear picture of how they can achieve these rewards Leader behaviour - Four  Directive behaviour: schedule work, maintain performance standards and let ees know what is expected of them, identical to initiating structure  Supportive behaviour: friendly, approachable, and concerned with pleasant interpersonal relationships. Identical to consideration  participative behaviour: leaders consult with ees about work related matters  achievement-oriented behaviour: leaders encourage employees to exert high effort and strive for a high level of goal accomplishment situational factors - two primary classes; ee characteristics and environmental factor - high need achievers should work well under achievement-oriented leadership - ees prefer being told what to do should respond best to a directive leadership style - ees feel that they rather low task abilities, appreciate directive leadership and coaching behaviour. When capable of performing the task, they will view such behaviours as unnecessary and irritating - exhibit 9.3 p.296 - also effectiveness of leadership behaviour depends on the particular work environment  when tasks are clear and routine, ees perceive directive leadership as a redundant and uneccesary imposition  task are challenging but ambiguous, appreciate both directive and participative leadership  frustrating, dissatisfying jobs should increase ee appreciation of supportive behaviour research evidence - substantial evidence that supportive or considerate leader behaviour is most beneficial in supervising routine, frustrating or dissatisfying jobs and some evidence that directive or structuring leader behaviour is most effect on ambiguous, less structured jobs Participative leadership: involving employees in decisions What is participation? - participative leadership: involving ees in making work-related decisions - min. obtaining ee opinions before making a decision - max. allows ees to make their own decisions within agreed on limits - “area of freedom” increases, the leader is behaving in a more participative manner Potential advantages of participative leadership Motivation: - Increase the motivation of ees, permits ees to contribute to the establishment of work gaols and decide how they can accomplish these goals, increase intrinsic motivation Quality: - “two heads” lead to higher quality decisions than the leader could make alone - Most likely when ees have special knowledge to contribute to the decision - Ee participation in technical matters should enhance the quality of decisions Acceptance: - Increase the ee acceptance of decisions - Issue of fairness is involved Potential problems of participative leadership Time and energy: - When a quick decisions is needed, participation is not an appropriate leadership strategy. Hospital emergency room is not the place to implement participation on a continuous basis Loss of power - Leaders feel that a participative style will reduce their power and influence lack of receptivity or knowledge - ees might not be receptive to participation - this occurs because they are unaware of external constraints on their decisions Vroom and Jago’s situational model of participation - victor vroom, Arthur jago developed a model to specify in a practical manner when leaders should use participation and to what extent they should use it - various degrees of participation that a leader can exhibit - A = autocratic, C = consultative, G = group - P 299 - Which of these situations is most effective? Depends on situation - Quality requirement (QR) : how important is the technical quality of this decision - Commitment requirement (CR): how important is subordinate - Leader’s information (LI): do you have sufficient information to make a high quality decision? - Participative approach could stimulate ee developm
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