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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Mark Moscicki

26/01/2014 ORGANIZATIONALBEHAVIOUR MOS 2181B LECTURE 4 THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION MOTIVATION IN PRACTICE Overview ▯ Introductionto motivation ▯ Theoriesof work motivation ▯ Needtheoriesof motivation ▯ Processtheoriesof motivation ▯ Motivationin practice ▯ Money ▯ Jobdesign ▯ Managementbyobjectives ▯ Alternativeworkschedules ▯ Examreview ▯ Activity INTRODUCTIONTO MOTIVATION 1 26/01/2014 Motivation Extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Motivation Extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Highestmonthlysalesin thecompany Motivation Extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Sales asopposedto relationshipswith coworkers 2 26/01/2014 Motivation Extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Work hardto achieve the highestsalespossible Motivation Extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Work hardthe entire shift,every day, to achievethe highestsales possible Extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation Intrinsic Extrinsic motivation motivation Motivation toperform a behaviour due Motivation toperform a behaviour to tointerestor enjoyment obtain external rewards E.g.,playing soccerbecauseyou enjoy E.g.,cutting the grassso your wife thesport stopsnagging E.g.,working overtime on a project E.g.,working overtime on a project becauseof interestin the project becauseyour supervisor requires it E.g.,KPMG has an employeelounge E.g.,KPMG has a profit-sharing withfireplace,videogames,pool table, program andreflection rooms Passer(2003);www.canadastop100.com/national/ 3 26/01/2014 Extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation ▯ Somemotivatorsare not clearly extrinsicor clearly intrinsic. Consider the following: ▯ EllisDonprovidesemployeespaidtimeoff to volunteerwith charitableorganizations ▯ TheNationalBallet offersa variety of trainingprograms and financialbonusesforsome coursecompletion www.canadastop100.com/national/ The motivation-performance relationship Intelligence Personality Task understanding Education Motivation Performance Luck Emotionalintelligence Theories of motivation ▯ Need theories ▯ Maslow’s  hierarchy  of  needs Explain what ▯ Alderfer’sERG theory motivates ▯ McClelland’s  theory  of  needs ▯ Processtheories Explain how ▯ Expectancytheory motivation ▯ Equitytheory occurs ▯ Goal-settingtheory 4 26/01/2014 Motivation in practice ▯ Money ▯ Using pay to motivateworkers ▯ Using pay to motivateteamwork ▯ Job design ▯ Jobscope ▯ Job characteristics model ▯ Job enrichment ▯ Managementby objectives ▯ Alternativeworking schedules ▯ Flextime ▯ Compressedworkweek ▯ Job and work sharing ▯ Telecommuting NEEDTHEORIES OF MOTIVATION Maslow’s  hierarchy  of  needs ▯ Thelowest levelunsatisfiedneed category has the greatest motivating potential ▯ A satisfied needis no longer an effectivemotivator Self-actualization Self-esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological 5 26/01/2014 Alderfer’s ERG theory ▯ Themore lower-levelneeds are gratified... ▯ Themorehigher-levelneedsatisfactionisdesired ▯ Theless higher-levelneeds are gratified... ▯ Themorelower-levelneedsatisfactionis desired Growth Relatedness Existence McClelland’s  theory  of  needs ▯ Needsreflectrelatively stable personality characteristics acquiredthrough early life experiencesand exposure to society ▯ People will be motivated to seek out and perform well in jobs that match theirneeds Needfor Needfor Needfor achievement affiliation power Desireto perform Desireto establish Desireto have challengingtasks friendly, influenceoverand well compatible impacton others relationships Research support ▯ Maslow’s  hierarchy  of  needs ▯ Littlesupportfor the ideathat satisfiedneedsbecomeless important ▯ Littlesupportfor the ideathat needsare hierarchical ▯ Alderfer’sERG theory ▯ Goodsupportfor theidea thatfrustrationof relatedness needsincreasesthestrengthofexistenceneeds ▯ McClelland’s  theory  of  needs ▯ Goodsupportfor theidea thatparticularneedsare motivationalwhentheworkenvironmentpermits 6 26/01/2014 Managerial implications ▯ Appreciatediversity ▯ Offerincentivesor goals that correspond to individual employeeneeds ▯ Appreciateintrinsicmotivation ▯ Meetbasic needs, then make jobs more stimulating and challenging PROCESS THEORIESOF MOTIVATION Expectancy theory ▯ Motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expectto occuras a resultof their actions on the job ▯ Components: ▯ Outcomes(first-levelandsecond-level) Force ▯ Instrumentality Relativedegreeof effortdirected ▯ Valence towardoutcomes ▯ Expectancy 7 26/01/2014 Expectancy theory ▯ First-leveloutcomes: ▯ Outcomesof interestto theorganization(performance) ▯ E.g.,a good qualitypaper ▯ E.g.,highproductivityvs. averageproductivity ▯ Second-leveloutcomes: ▯ Outcomesofinterestto theworker(outcomes) ▯ Consequencesthatfollowthe attainmentofa particularfirst- leveloutcome ▯ E.g.,a good grade on a paper ▯ E.g.,pay, senseof accomplishment,fatigue Expectancy theory Force  =  Expectancy  x  (∑  instrumentalities  x  second-levelvalences) Expectancy theory Force=  Expectancy  x  (∑  instrumentalities  x  second-levelvalences) Degreeof effortdirected toward various first-leveloutcomes 8 26/01/2014 Expectancy theory Force= Expectancy x  (∑  instrumentalities  x  second-levelvalences) Link between effortandperformance E.g.,  “I  am  fairly  confident  that  I  can  put  in  sufficient   effort  to  produce  a  good  quality  paper” Expectancy theory Force  =  Expectancy  x  (∑  instrumentalitiesx second-levelvalences) Link betweenperformanceandoutcome E.g.,  “The  odds  are  decent  that  my  good  quality  paper  will   get  me  an  A+” Expectancy theory Force  =  Expectancy  x  (∑  instrumentalities  x  second-levelvalences) Expectedvalueofoutcomes (whethertheyareattractive) E.g.,  “An  A+  on  my  paper  is   very  attractive  to  me” 9 26/01/2014 Expectancy theory Expectancytheory appliedin a Virginia bank Force  =  Expectancy  x  (∑  instrumentalities  x  second-levelvalences) Aamodt(2013) Expectancy theory Expectancytheory appliedin a Virginia bank Force=  Expectancy  x  (∑  instrumentalities  x  second-levelvalences) “I  am  not  motivated  to  increase  my   customer  recruitment” Aamodt(2013) Expectancy theory Expectancytheory appliedin a Virginia bank Force= Expectancy x  (∑  instrumentalities  x  second-levelvalences) “No  matter  how  hard  I  work,  I   can’t  generate  25  new   customers” Aamodt(2013) 10 26/01/2014
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