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Lecture 1

Music 1102A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Duple And Quadruple Metre, Duple Coachbuilders, Unique Key


Department
Music
Course Code
Music 1102A/B
Professor
Kate Helsen
Lecture
1

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Lecture 2 September 12, 2016
Melody
Single line of notes heard in succession as a coherent unit
Note - smallest unit of music
Notes form into phrases separated by breaths or pauses
Cadence - point of arrival (when we are done at an appropriate time)
Melodies constructed from subphrases and phrases, which form complete statements ending
with a cadence
Melodic motion either conjunct (motion by steps) or disjunct (motion by leaps)
Most melodies use both types
Melodic notes typically derive from a scale (series of stepwise notes spanning an octave)
Interval distance between two notes
Scales combine whole steps and half steps, form building blocks of a melody
Central note of scale or melody determines its key
Standard Western music uses 12 keys with two possible modes
Major mode do-re-mi-fa-so-la-ti-do; sounds bright or happy
Minor mode sae as ajo, ut loeed i ad la; souds dak o soe
Mixtures of modes creates melodic contrast
Rhythm
The ordering of music through time
Meter underlying, recurring pattern of beats
Triple meter one strong beat followed by two weak beats
Duple meter one strong beat followed by one weak beat
Measure rhythmic unit formed by meter
Durations of notes (LONG versus short) can vary within an underlying meter
Harmony
The sound created by multiple notes played or sung simultaneously
If melody functions horizontally, then harmony functions vertically
Harmony presents notes drawn from a scale simultaneously
Chord three or more notes played at the same moment
Most harmonizations use different chords to create variety
A single melody can be harmonized in more than one way
Harmony works on small and large scale
Tonic the primary key area of a piece
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Texture
The number and general relationship of musical lines to one another
Monophonic single melodic line; multiple performers can play in unison
Homophonic melody with supporting accompaniment
Polyphonic melody performed against another line of equal importance; every line is a melody
Timbre
The color of music, the character of sound
Different instruments or voices can change the same melody
Range of musical timbre enormous, from instruments to voices, individually or together in
combinations
Dynamics
Term used to indicate relative volume
Ranges from very soft to very loud
Can change suddenly or gradually
Referred to using Italian terms: table on etext (pianissimo (pp)
Form
The structure of a musical work, the way in which its individual units are put together
Based on three possible strategies
o Repetition
o Variation
o Contrast
Different sections diagrammed with letters (ABACA going to hit something that keeps coming
back)
Word-Music Relationships
How do the notes relate to the words?
Textual and musical structures can match
Individual words or emotions can correspond to other musical elements (e.g., high notes on
Ad the okets ed glae
Beyond the Elements: Genre
The category of a given work, determined by a combination of its performance medium and
social function
Shapes our expectations of any given work
Knowing typical nature and function of genre can help us understand unknown works
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In Review: The Elements
These elements work together to create a satisfying whole
Isolating one element requires special effort
Focused listening increases awareness of complexity and beauty of works of music and music
in general
Better listening means better enjoyment
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