Philosophy 2701E Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Free Rider Problem, Meritocracy, Social Order

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Published on 11 Jul 2012
School
Western University
Department
Philosophy
Course
Philosophy 2701E
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of 3
WEEK 6 LECTURE 3
SOCIAL CONTRACT
HOBBES
- everyone is a threat to one another in the social structure, nature of civil government.
Nature of government is to protect each other from ourselves and others in the SON
- element of coercion, this element is the fundamental means by which the government can
fulfill its nature
- purpose of government is to put an end to the state of war that exists everywhere for the
SON
- SOW never
LOCKE
- Protect us from our rulers and the sovereign, government or constitution needs to be
generated so that the driving force of that contract is to guarantee some sort of protection
from an oppressive state, so that we have a way out so that we have something to appeal
to
- Popular representations, common idea ubiquitous idea, notion since we cant speak directly
to power we need popular representation, to act as a check to the ruling state to limit so
that it doesn’t become tyrannical.
- Purpose of government is to specifically protect individual liberty and secure property rights,
acquire property that has been given through a deity, natural rights need to be guaranteed,
secure property rights
- SOW Inconvienent and chaotic, unordered mess needs to be organized into a process
ROUSSEAU
- Thinks we’re better off without any contract, uncorrupted in our natural pre social
condition,
- There is some force that motivated us to come together to pool our resources for basic
survival
- Society corrupts us of our basic nature, unite us under a common idea, common interests
- Protect us from a state entity, expression of the general will
- Government is to serve the people through which the general will can be expressed, popular
expression direct democratic policy by which it comes together through elections or
elected meritocracy
- Harmonize the group, emergency requires us to fight together for everyone who is coming
as an individual, function of social contract is to harmonize this group of individuals to
establish common interest and to make sure common interests are being served.
- Noble, romantic notion that describes nobility into when we are naturally free, has to reflect
the values and rights that we have in nature, has to do this through coercion in other means
in the SOW, tense relationship[s when your freedom is based on your submission, normal
and peaceful life otherwise
- Enter into a social arrangement that will fix the SOW
Social order in the original SON one of them will be based in social order, social arrangement,
half signed onto the contract and half in the SON can’t have this – must be applied universally
not be arbitrary, must fulfill the requirements of universality and it may not be arbitrary
Protection if there are no threats then there is no reason to enter into the social contract
- Of property
- Of person we have a right to self preservation, so we are not disabled by another
- Of pursuit protected
Establish consent, people who authorize whether implicitly or explicitly the state power
establishes consent, this state power in all 3 cases the basis for any political arrangement comes
out of the consent and authorization
Free riders are the problem, in all 3 cases the social contract makes it rational for all 3 cases to
enter into it consent of the people implies that it is rational or there is some good reason to
enter into the contract it is rational for the individual, more rational that not to sign onto this
contract
If they are rational and self interested we have to deal with the possibility of free riders. 3
answers to the free rider problem
1. Coercive power(Hobbes) make it so that its always irrational, where it is
rational it is only rational for a tiny part of that society. How to coerce
people into playing by the rules
2. Natural Tendencies that make this an unlikely problem, not really a
problem in the first place (Locke) some need for coercive power,
something needed to prevent unnatural behavior but more often than not
we can rely on whether something is likely or not. Natural tendencies allow
us to get along better
3. Constructed character sign onto the contract and the second it doesn’t fit
your interest, you bail harmonization of character and identity want to
establish essentially one big family
Duty of the sovereign is that our common interests are protected each of these coercive
powers shows how much power the state has prefer when there is no need for power to be
observed in order for things to go smoothly- how do we know what our natural tendencies are
without rational ability
How much should the government be forced to do for the protection of its people
POLITICS
Locke - One extreme politicians or politics theorists that our basic problems is politics is
required for investigation to deal with the basic problems that arise from a conflict of ideas all
of our basic problems arise out of a general conflict of ideas, the solution is that these conflicts
should be resolved through reason.
- Rational thought is public and flourishes through education create better cohesion an object
of rational thought shows that everything does resolve together, shows consistency at all costs
there is an effort to criticize and resolve the conflicted idea
- Only when its fully elaborated do things fully resolve
- revolution of ideas, one theory must dominate over another to make it true, resolves our basic
problems
- purpose is to resolve conflicts that arise from differences of ideas optimist that just by
working out ideas we can make the world a better place
Rousseau - OTHER EXTREME cynicism, not uncommon amongst everyone typically take the
form of difference in engaged arguments, thesis that we all are basically different in most ways
- These basic differences are more different than any sort of ideological differences
- Political theories attached to parties
- Theories are rhetorical tools that reinforce power and relations that are not just or unjust,
they reinforce the status quo or some other political intent
- The theory itself is manipulated to fit different things
- Phasing out ideas (educational paradigms etc) has no affect except the illusion which says
that maybe theories are designed to be so complicated that maybe only the smartest can
decode it that maybe its only purpose is to confuse the majority sophisticated deception
- Theories are wrong and all they do is serve to deceive, neoconservative thinking the vast
majority of us are too confused
- Skepticism suggests that social contract theory are just one way by which political
legitimacy is established on the bottom up approach, power is understood by the top down,
proponent of popular sovereignty
THE MIDDLE basic differences, the reason why they’re not just ideological or physical Is
because there are too many and irreducible, can’t be resolved by basic differences that we
share.
- Able to justify the legitimacy of each side

Document Summary

Hobbes everyone is a threat to one another in the social structure, nature of civil government. Nature of government is to protect each other from ourselves and others in the son element of coercion, this element is the fundamental means by which the government can fulfill its nature. Purpose of government is to put an end to the state of war that exists everywhere for the. Popular representations, common idea ubiquitous idea, notion since we cant speak directly to power we need popular representation, to act as a check to the ruling state to limit so that it doesn"t become tyrannical. Purpose of government is to specifically protect individual liberty and secure property rights, acquire property that has been given through a deity, natural rights need to be guaranteed, secure property rights. Sow inconvienent and chaotic, unordered mess needs to be organized into a process. Thinks we"re better off without any contract, uncorrupted in our natural pre social condition,