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Cellular Physiology 3140A Lecture 2.docx

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Physiology 3140A
Anita Woods

Cellular Physiology 3140A September 11, 2013 Lecture 2 Cells Require Energy - Cells use ATP, which is the major energy source of the cell. Glucose and oxygen is used in a number of steps to give rise to ATP. Cells use energy to move along. They use energy for mitosis. DNA replication is high-fidelity (giving rise to something similar to original) to have perfect copies which requires a lot of energy. Separation of DNA for replication also requires energy as copies are separated to cells during mitosis. Protein production requires energy as the cell need proteins in order for proper function. RNA or more specifically mRNA is used to make proteins. miRNA is used to regulated genomes. snoRNA’s are also used to regulate RNA expressed and how long they are expressed. xRNAs are RNA’s that cells make and package to send out to the external environment so other cells can “pick” them up. This tells other cells what proteins to make. Cells Function as Biochemical Factories - Biochemical factors (proteins) all work together in the cell to produce an effect. All cells will utilize the same subset of molecules to derive all of their needs and carry out specific programmed functions. This requires ATP. Ex. Rotary protein on membrane that hydrolyzes ATP and it pumps H+ ions out of the cell. Many subunits of the protein complex work together to make it functional. This pump is found in lysosomes, stomach and etc. Cells are enclosed in a Plasma Membrane - The barrier of the plasma membrane is selective. They choose what molecules enter or exit the cell. Molecules to enter the cell would be hormones, calcium, oxygen, glucose, sodium, other ions and etc. Things that would exit the cell would be carbon dioxide, hormones, sodium and etc. It is a dynamic structure that is physiologically active. The cell membrane has different regions where it may/may not be permeable to certain molecules. Cell Differences - Variability of Cell Shape determines differences of the cell. Neurons have extended membranes that allows for communication with other cells. The active cytoskeleton supports the plasma membrane. But it also determines what cell type it can be by the cell shape. When cells are taken out of their original environment and put into a different one, they will de-differentiate and “forget” who they are. They start expressing functinos differently from the original environment. However, if you bring back the cells original shape then it would return to its original function. Organelle Number - There is variability in organelle number amongst cells. If a cell requires lots of ATP then it would have more mitochondria. Cardiac muscles and muscles need more ATP thus has more mitochondria. Cells that make a lot of protein has more endoplasmic reticulum. Cells that need to make more lipids need smooth ER such as the liver cells. Expression of genome- ability or inability - All cells have the same genome. In order to be different, genes in the genome ar
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