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Lecture 4

Physiology 4530A/B Lecture 4: Lecture 4

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Physiology 4530A/B
Frank Beier

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Lecture 4: Spine Biology Spine Defects Scoliosis: sideways bending of spine Kyphosis: forward bending of spine - Both of these are acute problems and associated w developmental problems in bone formation Scheuermann’s disease: spinal fusion from excess curvature Vertebra - Vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 9 sacral + coccyx - - Vertebral body: weight-supporting cylindrical cancellous bone - Spinous process: pointed muscle attachment point tethering muscles extending dorsal/caudal; protects spinal cord - Transverse process: pointed muscle attachment point - Lamina: forms walls of spinal canal - Superior/inferior articular processes: forms facet joints with adjacent vertebrae via articular facets - Facet joint: synovial joint - Spinal canal: contains spinal cord from brain stem to upper lumbar, terminating at conus medullaris (which has the cauda equina (bundle of nerves) branching off here; nerve roots are suspended in dural sac) - Motion segment: 2 vertebrae and IVD and 2 facet joints Intervertebral Disc - Cartilaginous joints consisting of connective tissue anchoring adjacent vertebrae (no synovial fluid) - Absorbs compressive load; allows flexibility/mobility of spine o Tensile and compressive stresses on disc increases in magnitude down spine because of body weight and geometry of spine - Nucleus pulposus o Gelatinous matrix of PGs (aggrecan) and type II collagen  High PGs (so high H2O), low collagen  Aggrecan provides osmotic properties for compression, via high anionic glycosaminoglycan (chondroitin/keratan sulfate) o Avascular, aneural o Homeostasis kept by catabolic factors (proteases like MMP,ADAMTS) and anabolic factors (matrix proteins) o 2 cell types:  Notochordal cells: lysosomal, vacuolated storage spots  By age 10, almost all gone, so NP is composed of NP cells (which if lost, induces natu
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