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Lecture 15

Physiology 3120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Entorhinal Cortex, Limbic System, Cingulate Cortex


Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHYSIO 3120
Professor
Tom Stavraky
Lecture
15

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Neuro XV
Hypothalamus and Limbic System
Limbic System
Limbo (border) with brainstem; top of the brain stem
Phylogenetically old, primitive (reptilian) cortex
Structures: Cingulate cortex, Hypothalamus, Amygdala, Hippocampus
Limbic System Function
Emotion, certain motivational states and behaviours
Cold/Hot (Clothes, Move)
Hunger (Feeding)
Thirst (Drinking)
Rage/Fear (Attack/defense) Rabies virus affects limbic cortex: bouts terror, rage
Daily life: road rage, slap face
Sexual Urge (Mating)
Pain (Avoidance) Somatosensory cortex (Location, Intensity, Timing)
Cingulate cortex: emotional component
(Lesion in C. cortex: feel pain but not bothered by it)
Somatosensory only cares about pain L, I, T if there’s a lesion here, still feel pain or
emotional aspects of pain bc this is sent to limbic system
Chronic lesion in C. cortex patients are constantly bothered by pain
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Hypothalamus
Many structures project to and from the hypothalamus
Information entering the hypothalamus:
o Retina visual information (circadian rhythms)
o Thalamus sensory info from entire body & environment
o Circulating blood hypothalamus has a bunch of receptors for osmo, gluco,
sodium, leptin, etc
Leptin: hormone made in fat storage cells, released into the blood and
goes into hypothalamus
Signals size of fat stores; large fat stores hypothalamus will signal
for a reduction in motivated behavior of food intake
(Hypofisial)
< 1% volume of brain
Remarkable number of functions
Lesion
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Obese people may be insensitive to leptin or mutation in leptin gene
or receptor
Example of a feedback mechanism from the periphery to
hypothalamus
o Posterior pituitary axons from hypothalamus project here to cause
release of the hormones (oxytocin & ADH)
o Portal system in hypothalamus (hypophysial system): sends substances
down to anterior pituitary (Releasing/release-inhibitant hormone)
They determine whether or not hormones are released from anterior
pituitary
The Hypothalamus
i) Receives a wide range of sensory information
ii) Compares this sensory information with Set Points
iii) Coordinates a variety of: Autonomic
Endocrine
Behavioural
Effects Associated With
i) Maintaining constant the internal environment (homeostasis)
ii) Coordinating motivational behaviours
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