Physiology 3120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Postcentral Gyrus, Axon Hillock, Excitatory Synapse

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Hore Lecture 1
-brain stem of spinal cord has three structures:
-above the brain stem is the hypothalamus  called hypothalamus as it lies beneath the
thalamus
-big structure is called the cerebral hemisphere = there are two
-within the hemispheres are the thalamus and at the base is the basal ganglia
-cerebral hemisphere has cerebral cortex which is on the outside of it and has folds to increase
SA
-the hill is called the gyrus and the valley is called the sulcus
-the hill behind the central sulcus is called the postcentral gyrus and the hill in front is the
precentral gyrus
-the front part is called rostral and the back is called the caudal
-cerebellum contributes to skilled movement and is divided into cerebellar cortex and
cerebellar deep nuclei
-two types of cells in brain: glial cells and neurons
-glial cells are helper cells as they help the neurons stay alive and appropriate function
-normal blood supply to brain brings in glucose but under stress/in state of decreased glucose,
additional glucose from glycogen provided by the glial cells
-brain is only 2% of body weight but takes up 25% of glucose  this is how important glucose is
to the brain
-transmitters must be shut down after their work is done eg: Ach must be shut down after AP is
fired
-ammonia is a by-product of metabolism and toxic to neurons
-take up K  neurons fire APs, Na comes in, K goes out - what happens if K accumulates outside?
-it will change conc gradient and then neuron will become depolarized and fires AP
inappropriately (more details later in this lecture)
-provides myelin sheaths to axons for saltatory conduction
-second type of cell in brain is neuron
-LOTS of dendrites where most synaptic connections
-axon hillock is where the AP is initiated
-axon here is myelinated
-terminal with some vesicles and transmitters being released
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