Security: attack one country all of its allies will come after you. Ethnic group: claiming common language, religion, ancestry. Nation: categorization, comradeship, commitment to political autonomy. Nationalism: sense of integrity and value of national community. National identity: based on political aspirations. Jg herder natural and durable: nations have sentiments for their peoples, provides a secure foundation, anthony smith, adapted to modernity. Common justification for national liberation struggle: where cultural nationalism presents itself the most fully developed. Exclusive nationalism: you are either in them or not, these nations are more exclusive about inclusiveness. Ethnicity was a substitute for race: there is no such thing as a race, the word was substituted for race. There is a strongly subjective element: there is a belief in the difference in culture. Selective: which culture and which parts matter. Nation constructed on foundations of the state: borders, citizenship, social contract, political principals.