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Lecture 6

Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Compassionate Conservatism, Hugh Segal, Robert Stanfield


Department
Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Peter Fragiskatos
Lecture
6

Page:
of 2
October 23, 2014: Lecture #6
- Traditional conservatives don’t have faith in people to lead
Paternalistic Conservatism:
- State can be used as a tool to make desired changes; stems from an observation
made after the Industrial Revolution with the big gap between rich and poor
-Disraeli (1804-1881): the poor are eventually going to revolt and therefore, the
state will have to intervene; the rich are obligated to help the poor because with
wealth comes the responsibility to help the less fortunate; society is held together
by duty and obligation; gave poor the right to vote in 1867, introduced social
programs, and gave housing to poor
- In Canada, we have paternalistic conservatism (health care, education, etc.) but
liberal conservatism is much more prevalent
Liberal Conservatism:
1. First type:
- State should take a back seat but should act to ensure citizens’ basic needs are met
-Robert Stanfield (1914-2003): the greatest prime minister Canada never had, due
to Trudeau; lacked charisma
-Hugh Segal (1950-): opposed to poverty; ought to let people decide how to spend
their money (focus on individualism)
- 10-15% of population live under the poverty line; these people are more likely to
drop out of school, less chance of contributing to society, unemployment, illness,
family problems, crime, addiction, etc.; solution is a basic income law ($22,000)
so the state won’t have to play an active role, since welfare programs would end
- Compassionate conservatism
- Inequality is seen as a fact of life but it should be managed so that the problems
do not spill over and cause harm
2. Second type:
- Margaret Thatcher (1925-)
- Stephen Harper (1959-)
- Ronald Reagan
- Society is composed of self-interested individuals; what brings people together is
that they have a common desire for security
- Wealth and status is a result of individual status; less concerned with helping the
poor; function of the state is to maintain law and order and uphold property rights
(keeping things in tact); the state should stay out of the economy; employment
should be based on merit; high taxes create a disincentive to innovate
- Keen to have state out of the economy to maintain order and continuity; a lack of
job security is not bad
- Believe in religion
Utopian Socialism:
- Karl Marx and Frederick Angles
- Utopia = no place
- A new society would come about without struggles with the working class
- Grew as a reaction to the French and Industrial Revolution
- Without the enlightenment, you don’t have Industrial Revolution and without
Industrial Revolution, you don’t have socialism
-Elizabeth Gaskell (1810-1865): became one of the few voices for those who
didn’t have a voice through novels; told a story of factory life and poor; many
people didn’t stand up for the capitalist way of life
-Charles Fourier (1772-1837): activist; didn’t like the idea of profit-making; saw
the factory model as dehumanizing; work should be satisfying mentally and
physically; create a society that matches with human nature (passion, ambition,
curiosity, etc.); individualism and liberalism did not match with the human nature
of friendship/family; focused on communal living and you don’t get there through
revolution – groups would get together to complete societal tasks and everyone’s
basic needs would be met, property and inequality would not be abolished, and
the highest paying jobs would be for those who did physical work; problems of
communal living:
-Robert Owen (1771-1858): activist; all about new harmony; had progressive
ideas; restricted child labor and provided sick pay; cared about how people
worked and lived; felt you could mold human character; inequalities in society
were created by inequalities in property and ownership; experiment eventually
failed because there were too many idealists and not enough doers
- Utopian socialism was all about creating a world based on equality