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Lecture One.docx

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Psychology 2035A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Lecture One – Perspective on Personality: Psychodynamic & Train Chapter one points: - Counter points v/s points - Research methods (experimental i.e. naturalistic, case studies, and surveys) - People differ from each other  nobody is absolutely identical o There are individual difference between people o These differences tend to stay the same, there is a stability and consistency to that o People don’t really change over night o When we talk about stable and consistency in a person = PERSONALITY - Personality: individual differences that are stable over time and consistent across situation Where do these stable and consistent individual differences come from? The Origin of Personality: - Chapter 2 discusses 4 different perspective to origin of personality - In lectures focusing on 2 fundamentally different perspective: Psychodynamic & Trait Perspective - Begin with the most influential and controversial theories by a very controversial theorist in psychology Sigmund Freud Part1: Freud’s Psychodynamic Perspective o Freud is the best known psychologist o Freud, interestingly was never trained for psychology, he a trained doctor with a focus neuroscience - Freud came across a # of patients with these conditions: a) Hysteria: unusual symptoms (but no physical basis) - E.g. glove anesthesia (see p452) - Patient loses feeling in the hand wrist down - Given the way blood vessels (nerves are distributed physiologically impossible to lose feeling in the entire hand and nowhere else - These patients reported childhood sexual experiences with adults (?) - Freud came to the that those sexual experiences might have never occurred, as the memories were too inconsistent  therefore thought that maybe it was a Fantasy - Freud was curious and wondered why would they say such lies, so he come to the conclusion that it was a fantasy that they wished had occurred - Free Association, being able to talk freely about their “experiences” or something all that line seem to cure it  therefore so aptly named “Talking Cure”  But why was it Effective? b) The Topology of the Mind - When Freud was trying to decide why the “Talking Cure” worked, he started looking at the Topology of the Brain  The conscious mind: everything we are aware of at a given moment  The (motivated) unconscious mind: wishes, desires, impulses that are beyond conscious awareness - According to Freud the unconscious mind played a bigger part that the conscious mind ** The controversy idea was that the unconscious mind was “MOTIVATED” o These desires/wishes are kept in mind b/c they are unacceptable/threatening/upsetting b/c they contain upsetting sexual actions - By probing the unconscious mind (with free association) Freud made the unconscious conscious (and hence cure his patient aka the “talking cure”) Interlude – Probing The Unconscious: A Case of Obsessive Thinking: - An example studied by Freud: A 29 year old has this obsessive though (conscious) - “ If I have sexual intercourse… my niece will die” thought  this thought was linked to unconscious thoughts “If I have sexual intercourse ……………………………………………………………………. My niece will die” Unconscious Thought “I’ll think of being married” “I wish my niece was ill” “I’ll remember that my fiancé can’t have children” “I will resent my niece” “I’ll become jealous of my sister who can have children” “I’ll be angry with her for having a child”  When Freud uncovered the unconscious thought the man was cured! - Freud proposed that the mind could be divided in to 3 interactive structure c) 3 Structures of Mind (pg. 37) (in the diagram: topology on right and structure of mind on left) 1) The Id: a cauldron of seeding excitation o Exists entirely with unconscious world o Reflects instinctive needs (e.g. food, sex) o All those instinctive needs are related to more BASIC needs = EROS (the life instinct)  Eros: unconscious instinct to survive and reproduce o Eros produces “psychic energy” (LIBIDO) -> which must be released o The textbook called LIBIDO as an erotic energy o Id doesn’t have any contact with reality hence functions in a very irrational manner o Id operates according to pleasure principle (seeks immediate gratification of needs regardless of circumstances) o Id engages in primary process thinking  Here there’s no distinction between “wishing” and “having”  (Satisfies that need by fantasy) o According to Freud when we are born all we are is “Id”  but soon we come to reality where we don’t always get to satisfy our needs 2) The Ego: o Operates in the both the conscious and the unconscious level o Operates according to reality principle o Ego tries to satisfy the need; but sensitive to the demands of real world, it is willing to DELAY the gratification of the id’s needs) o Engages in SECONDARY PROCESS THINKING (develops realistic plans to satisfy id’s needs) o E.g. Ego realizes that you can’t just have sex  you will need to also have a relationship 3) Super Ego: o Consists the moral component of a person (right & wrong) o Both conscious and unconscious (like Ego) o Tends to be irrational (like id)  b/c super ego develops at a quite a young age (3-11)  it is a very immature conception of right/wrong; kind of rules of Do’s and Don’ts o produces guilt when rules are broken - NOTE: the 3 structures are constantly interacting with each other (kind of like a negotiation to figure out how the libido energy will be used) - EGO has the toughest job  must control id (the unconscious need of id) and superego d) How Ego Stays in Control: 1) ANXIETY: signals loss of control  Threats from Id (threatening to take control)  neurotic anxiety  Threats from super ego  moral anxiety  Anxiety is just a warning sign 2) Defense Mechanism: Allows Ego stay in control; reduce Anxiety (see textbook pg 38-39) e) Personality development (p
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