Chapter 7 Notes This is for Psych 2060, taken online, for the Muchinsky 9th Ed. textbook. These are very detailed and easy to understand notes on Chapter 7 that I made myself. Headings and bullets make it easy to read, and I assure you there is enough

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Chapter 7 – Performance Management
-performance appraisal: the process of assessing performance
to make decisions (e.g., about pay raises)
-performance development: assessment of performance with
the goal of providing feedback to facilitate improved
-performance management: the process that incorporates
appraisal and feedback to make performance-based
administrative decisions and help employees improve
-performance: is synonymous with behaviour, it is what people
actually do and can be observed
-effectiveness: refers to the evaluation of the results of
performance, and it is beyond the influence or control of the
oe.g. how many promotions someone has gotten in the past
3 years
odepends on how many openings were available
- 4 ways performance appraisals can help organizations
oenhance quality of organizational decisions ranging from
pay raises to discharges
oenhance the quality of individual decisions, ranging from
career choices to the development of future strengths
oaffect employees’ views of and attachment to their
oprovide rational, legally defensible basis for personnel
Using the Results of Performance Appraisal
- personnel training
oidentify employee weaknesses
othese become the targets for training
operformance appraisals in this context serve more as a
diagnostic aid
- wage and salary administration
oprograms are designed so that there is a direct relationship
between the evaluation results and the size of a raise
owhen personnel development and salary administration are
combined in the same appraisal, employees can become
odon’t want to admit to weaknesses if it means getting a
smaller raise
oit is customary practice that these two functions not be
conducted at the same time by the same person
- placement
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oidentifies employee’s strengths to decide where a persons’
talents might be best used
ousually for new employees and management trainees
- promotions
oappraisals identify the better-performing employee
osuccession planning is a concept in which fairly long-term
projections (3-5 years) about future staffing needs are
based on the anticipated promotion of current employees
opromotions are usually granted on a combination of
seniority and merit
- discharge
otermination of employment should be predicated on just
oorganizations should document that efforts were made to
enhance the employee’s performance and that firing the
employee was their last resort
- personnel research
Performance Appraisal and the Law
- litigation can result from
oemployer negligence breach of duty to conduct
appraisals with due care
oemployer defamation disclosure of untrue unfavourable
performance information that damages the employee’s
oemployer misrepresentation disclosure of untrue
favourable performance information that presents a risk of
harm to prospective employees or third parties
- appraisal criteria that Malos recommended
oobjective rather than subjective
ojob-related or based on job analysis
obased on behaviours rather than traits
oshould be within the control of the ratee
orelates to specific functions, not global assessments
- appraisal procedures that Malos recommended
oshould be standardized and uniform for all employees
within a job group
oshould be formally communicated to employees
oprovide notice of performance deficiencies and of
opportunities to correct them
ouse multiple, diverse, and unbiased raters
oshould establish a system to detect potentially
discriminatory effect or abuses of the system overall
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- performance assessments of broad-based competencies can be
just as valid and legally acceptable as a job-based system of
performance appraisal
Theory of Person Perception
-person perception: a theory that asserts how we evaluate
other people in various contexts is related to how we acquire,
process, and categorize information
oalso known as social cognition or attribution theory of
person perception
- we all have fixed views of the way things should be when we
enter into interpersonal interactions
- these views act as filters to help us process large amounts of
information about other people
- we tend to eliminate or ignore information that does not fit our
initial views of someone
- Klimoski and Donahue developed a 3 part framework
consists of perceiver, target (person being perceived)
and context (e.g. presence of other group members)
characteristics of target include age, gender, race,
physical attractiveness, body language, eye contact,
contextual factors influence the judgment of the
target and provide the perceiver with information for
making cognitive judgments
include information processing pertaining to the
perceiver making a judgment
try to “make sense” of another person so they can
make better choices regarding their own actions
e.g. a perceiver uses a cognitive approach to assess
the level of potential physical threat of a passerby on
a sidewalk
schemas: a cognitive approach to processing
information that results in making sense of events
and actions that in turn influence how decisions are
made on the basis of that information
consists of
consequences for perception of target
oe.g. performance ratings and written
evaluations that formally document a
worker’s performance
consequences for perceiver/decision-maker
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