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Intro - Lecture 1.pdf

6 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 2221B
Shelley Cross- Mellor

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Intro:▯ ▯ % bonus, extra chapter summary, max 4 pages double spaces , due dec 4▯ Chapter 1: Biopsychology as a Neuroscience▯ What is Biopsychology?▯ ▯ The Case of Jimmie G, the Man Frozen in Time▯ - 49 years old▯ - past navy experience▯ - intelligent, above average in math and science, articulate▯ - talked about school days▯ - talked as if still in navy▯ - couldn’t remember anything since his early 20s▯ - unable to form lasting memories▯ ▯ Neurons and the Human Brain▯ Human Brain▯ - an amazingly intricate network of neurons▯ Neurons▯ - cells that receive and transmit electrochemical signals▯ ▯ Neuroscience▯ - scientific study of the nervous system▯ - may prove to be the brain’s ultimate challenge: does the brain have the capacity to understand something as complex as itself?▯ ▯ Defining Biopsychology▯ - scientific study of the biology of behavior▯ ▯ Four Major Themes of This Book▯ 1. thinking creatively about biopsychology▯ 2. clinical implications▯ 3. the evolutionary perspective▯ 4. neuroplasticity▯ ▯ Biopsychology is Empirical▯ - knowledge is acquired through observation▯ - biopsychologists must be skeptical and think critically▯ ▯ - psych conclusions based on research NOT tradition or common snese▯ ▯ Biological Perspective: The Beginning▯ mind-body dualism▯ - mind = spiritual entity▯ - not subject to physical laws▯ - Rene Descartes▯ - cannot be studied▯ monism▯ - mental events are a product of physical events▯ - can be studied▯ - ex. chemical reactions in brain...▯ ▯ Beginnings of Brain-Behavior Connection▯ - in support of monism▯ - Luigi Galvani▯ - severed leg of frog - moved when electrical current was passed through it▯ ▯ - i.e. discovered electrical nature of nerve conduction▯ Localization Issue▯ - idea that specific areas of the brain carry out specific functions▯ - Phineas Gage▯ - Broca’s Area (damage in the same area and had troubles with speech )▯ - unfortunately this idea also lead way for phrenology▯ - study of the brain (personality and intelligence) based on shape ▯ ▯ History of Biopsychology▯ - The Organization of Behavior▯ D.O. Hebb▯ - key factory in biopsychology’s devotion into a major neuroscientific discipline▯ - proposed that psychological phenomena might be produced by brain activity▯ - helped discredit notion that psychological functions are too complex to be derived from physiological activities▯ - based theory on experiments with humans, lab animals, case studies, observations of his own daily life▯ ▯ Disciplines of Neuroscience That are Relevant to Biopsychology▯ biopsychology▯ neuroanatomy - structure of the nervous system▯ neurochemistry - chemical bases of neural activity▯ neuroendocrinology - interactions between the nervous system and endocrine system▯ neuropathology - nervous system disorders▯ neuropharmacology - effects of drugs on neural activity▯ neurophysiology - functions and activities of the nervous system▯ ▯ Biopsychological Research▯ Three dimensions along which biopsychology research varies:▯ 1. subject - human, non human▯ 2. methods - experiments, non experiments▯ 3. types of research - pure, applied▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Advantages of Human and Nonhuman Subjects▯ Human Subjects▯ - more relevant/ directly applicable (human brain)▯ - less expensive▯ - can give consent▯ - can be instructed▯ - qualitative (can report)▯ Nonhuman Subjects▯ - fewer ethical issues▯ - shorter life span, longitudinal studies (shorter), generations▯ - controlled variables▯ - simpler brains = more likely brain-behavior interactions will be revealed▯ - comparative approach - comparisons with other species▯ ▯ Ethics in Animal Research - Canada▯ - funding agencies (ex. NSERC, CIHR, SSHRC)▯ - Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC)▯ - Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA)▯ - University Animal Care Committee (ACVS)▯ - provide humane care and treatment, minimize pain and discomfort, avoid unnecessary use of experimental animals▯ ▯ Types of Studies in Biopsychology▯ - differ on one factor, control (manipulation) of variables▯ - experiment: involve the manipulation of variables▯ - non-experiment: the researcher does not control the variables of interest▯ ▯ Experiments▯ - researcher compares two or more different conditions of the variable of interest▯ - if different subjects are tested in each condition: between subjects▯ - if same subjects: within subject▯ - difference between the conditions = independent variable▯ - variable measured by researcher to determine if there is an effect of different conditions = dependent variable▯ ▯ Confounded Variables▯ - unintended differences between conditions that can influence the dependent variable▯ - can be difficult to eliminate▯ - can make experiments difficult to interpret▯ - hard to tell how much of the effect on the DV caused by IV caused by the confounded variable▯ ▯ Non-experiments▯ - Quasi-experimental Studies▯ - studies groups of subjects exposed to conditions in the real world▯ - not real experiments (potential confounds)▯ - ex. study 100 alcoholics vs 100 non-drinkers - find poorer performance on perceptual, motor, cognitive tasks▯ - Case Studies▯ - focus on a single case of subject (Jimmie G)▯ - usually more in-depth than other approaches▯ - good source of te
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