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Abnormal Psyc Class 2.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2320A/B
Professor
Prof
Semester
Winter

Description
Abnormal Psyc Class 2 1/15/2013 10:41:00 AM Etiological theories of disorder • Etiological theories explain the origin of abnormal beh. • Good theories yield hypotheses that can be empirically evaluated • Resulting hypotheses are either supported or falsified; the theory is either supported, modified, or rejected • Theories are more likely to drop out of favor than they are to be rejected • There are no monocausal theories of anything that are correct • Reflects the complexity of abnormal human beh. th TOPICS FOR TODAY, JAN 15 1. Research methods in child psychopathology/clinical child psyc. 2. Epidemiology 3. Classification… etc… 1. Research… psychopath..psyc  Research on etiology (today)  Research on treatment (Jan 29 )th Background • Good research tests specific hypotheses based on theory • Hypothesis: prediction about relationship between constructs - Construct: a psychological abstraction that must be operationalized for research - Can’t be proven, only supported (or not) by data - Can (and should) test many different ways • Once you’ve operationalized your constructs (and received ethics approval), you next….. • Collect data (i.e., scores on the constructs of interest) • Conduct a statistical test • Yields probability that results due to chance (p value less than .05 is convention)  Stat significance doesn’t mean findings are important  Clinical vs statistical significance. Research on etiology in psychopathology: Background • Usually, correlational designs (rather than strictly experimental) are used - E.g. stressful life events and depression Recall, experimental means something MUST BE MANIPULATED. Correlational designs • Measure two variables and estimate their degree of relationship • Typically calculate a correlation coefficient (r), a number between -1 and 1 • r = 0 (and around zero): variables are unrelated; r =1 means perfect relationship. Correlations often misinterpreted to infer causality • More parent-child time together is assoc. with higher child GPAs • What type of correlation is this? • How is it commonly interpreted? • What are alternative interpretations? Research on etiology cont’d • Two broad, basic design distinctions typically seen in psychopathology research  Cross-sectional  Longitudinal Cross-S vs Longitudinal designs • Cross-S designs – most common, easy to implement  Cannot infer causality  A cross-sectional study is an observational one.  The defining feature of a cross-sectional study is that it can compare different population groups at a single point in time. Think of it in terms of taking a snapshot. Findings are drawn from whatever fits into the frame. • Longitudinal designs – attempt to address causality. If IV precedes DV, causality is SUPPORTED, but NOT established.  Third variables  Cohort effects (cohort effect is used in social science to describe variations in the characteristics of an area of study (such
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