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Psych 2410 March 4 Lec 7.docx

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Psychology 2410A/B

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March 4, 2012 - ANS: represents large numerosities o Study that showed dots increasing in size - OTS: represents small sets of objects - Object tracking system and object representation system o Cracker choice experiments  Child sees experimenter put crackers in one bucket, then in the second  Let baby pick a bucket –logic is they will go to the bucket with more crackers IF they are tracking how many crackers are in the bucket  When you put 3 vs. 4 crackers, performance is to chance, they choose randomly –you overwhelm the system o Manual search experiment  Box on table, places 2 balls on box, hides them inside  Infant can retrieve one ball and experimenter secretly removes 2 ball  2 objects (1 remaining trial): infants searching is measured, ball expected inside nd  Experimenter finds 2 ball  2 objects (expected empty trial) infants searching is measured, box is empty  At step 4, search for longer time then after when they see the experimenter remove it  When you start off with more balls (2 vs 4 balls) search time is not long and they choose where the ball is by chance, because your exceeding number of objects that can be tracked - Wynn: ANS or OTS/ORS? If infants are surprised by 5+5=5 then they are using something like ANS - Earliest symbolic number achievements –counting Counting - 1. One to one correspondence principle o Number stated –object 1, 2 3, 4 –(2 and 3 say are same object) violation o Or if you skipped number 2 - 2. Stable principle o 1, 3, 5 - 3. Order irrelevance principle st o Doesn’t matter which object you start with -1 , middle, last o Call middle one 1 still fine, doesn’t matter what order you go - 4. Cardinality principle o 3 things, count in order o The set size is always the last item o Last number tells you how much you have –privileged status - 5. Abstraction principle o Doesn’t matter what your counting, just have to respect other principles - These 5 things have to be in place to count –necessary conditions - When would we predict children acquire these principles o Piaget would say –formal operational because it relies on abstract representations o Apply it over all scenerios o Forced to relate different variables to one another - Gelmon and Gallisted: Puppet will violate or respect counting principles –ask kid if the puppet did it right or wrong o Demonstrates core knowledge o 3 years olds succeeding - Chimp doing the number
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