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Lecture 1

Psychology 2660A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Lillian Moller Gilbreth, Walter Dill Scott, American Psychological Association


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2660A/B
Professor
Natalie J Allen
Lecture
1

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I/O Psychology Notes
Chapter 1
Historical Background of I/O Psychology
Psychology: the scientific study of thinking and behavior
American Psychology Association (APA): founded 1892, A union of professional
psychologists. 54 divisions of APA representing special-interest subgroups
Industrial/Organizational Psychology is a specialty area of psychology
represented by Division 14 of the APA; the Society for Industrial and
Organizational Psychology, or SIOP
As of 2010, SIOP had approx. 7,000 members (60% male, 40% female)
4% of all psychologists work in I/O psychology
As globalization of business increases, so does the recognition of I/O psychology
IOP strives to enhance both institution and individual
IOP is an area of scientific study and professional practice that addresses
psychological concepts and principles in the work world
Concerned with behavior in work situations
Two sides of IOP:
1. Science
2. Practice
IO psychologists can use research findings to
1. Hire better employees
2. Reduce absenteeism (habitual pattern of absence)
3. Improve communication
4. Increase job satisfaction
5. Solve countless other problems
Scientific-practitioner model: A model or framework for education in an academic
discipline based on understanding the scientific principles and findings evidenced in the
discipline and how they provide the basis for the professional practice.
(a training model for graduate programs that aspires to train applied psychologists with a
foundation of research and scientific practice.)
IO Psychologists work in 4 main employment settings:
1. Universities (primary)
2. Consulting firms (primary)
3. Industry
4. Government

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Fields of I/O Psychology
1. Selection and Placement
2. Training and Development
3. Performance Management
4. Organizational Effectiveness
5. Quality of Worklife
Subspecialties:
Selection and Placement: IO psychologists who work in this field are concerned with
developing assessment methods for the selection, placement, and promotion of
employees
Training and Development: IO psychologists in this field are concerned with identifying
employee skills that need to be enhanced to improve job performance.
Performance Management: IO psychologists in this field are concerned with the accuracy
and value of the assessments made of individual work teams. Performance management
involves designing ways to assess employee work behavior and provide helpful feedback
to improve performance.
Organizational Effectiveness: Broadest area for IO psychologists, Concerned with
maintaining or improving the quality of the workforce, but also the quality of
relationships with customers and suppliers the organization needs for its continued
success
Quality of Worklife: IO psychologists who work in this field are concerned with factors
that contribute to a healthy and productive workforce. They may be involved in finding
ways to make the conduct of work more compatible with the personal or family needs of
employees.
Licensing of Psychologists
Licensure: The process by which a professional practice is regulated by law to ensure
quality standards are met to protect the public
Law regulates practice of professional psychology; the law that regulates both the title
and practice of psychology is called a licensing law
Licensure limits those qualified to practice psychology as defined by state law
Licensure involves education, experience, examination, and administrative requirements
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The History of I/O Psychology
2 world wars were major catalysts for changing the discipline
The Early Years (1900-1916)
- Did not have a name in these years
- Merging of 2 forces that gathered momentum before 1900
- 2 forces were pragmatic nature of basic psychological research and the desire
of industrial engineers to improve efficiency
W.L. Bryan (1903) addressed the APA with his study on “concrete activities and
functions as they appear in everyday life”. Emphasized examining real skills as a base
upon which to develop scientific psychology. NOT considered father of I/O psychology
but rather a precursor
Desire of industrial engineers to improve efficiency: they were concerned with
economics of manufacturing and thus the productivity of industrial employees. These
engineers developed “time and motion” studies to prescribe the most efficient body
motions per unit of time to perform a work task.
Koppes: discovered late 19th century, America undergoing rapid change and
developments because of industrialization, immigration, high birthrate, education, and
urban growth. America was ready for the useful, and society looked toward science for
practical solutions. These demands forced psychologists to popularize their science and
demonstrate the value of psychology in solving problems and helping society. “The
generation wanted to make American society a better and safer place to live and work,
they turned to science for practical solutions to everyday problems.
By 1910, “industrial psychology was a legitimate specialty area of psychology
(organizational appendage did not become official until over 60 years later)
4 Individuals stand out in founding of I/O Psychology in U.S:
Walter Dill Scott:
- Spoke to Chicago business leaders on need for applying psychology to
advertising
- 2 books made from his talk
- 1st dealt with suggestion and argument as means of influencing people
- 2nd aimed at improving human efficiency with such tactics as imitation,
competition, loyalty, and concentration
- During WW1, he was instrumental in the application of personnel procedures
in the army. He was described as a consummate science-practitioner who was
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