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All of Chapter 5 and 6 Lectures Slide and lecture notes

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Psychology 10262010 102000 AM even though people have many shared experiences ever individual has their own reality SensationThe process by which our sense organs respond to and translate stimuli into nerve impulses sent to the brain PerceptionOrganizing the stimulus input and giving it meaningStages of sensation and perceptionStimuli activate sensory receptorsSensory receptors translate information into nerve impulsesSpecialized neurons analyze stimuli featuresStimulus pieces are reconstructed and compared to stimuli stored records in memorypattern recognitionPerception is then consciously experiencedonly once the previous four have been accomplish Stimulus DetectionAbsolute limits lymen of sensitivity o Dimmest light in which we can see objects o Softest sound we can hearRecognizing differences between stimuli o Smallest difference in brightness detectable o Recognizing differences between tonesThe Absolute Thresholdo The lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected 50 of the timewhen your odds at detecting stimulus is 5050 o However the environment contains a background level of stimulation for each sense and this level the ADAPTATION level must be overcome if a stimuli is to be detected o At 100 hearing the stimulus is reported 100 of the time The amount of energy required to overcome the Adaptation level is known as the DIFFERENTIAL THRESHOLD o it is subject to variation with changes in circumstancesLockes experimentfill one bowl with hot water one with cold and one with room temp water o Put one hand in hot and one in cold o Hands will adapt o Hot and cold water will not feel as hotcold o Therefore both hands are being differential adapted to heatcold o If both hands are put in room temp water cold hand will say water is hot while hot hand will say water is coldyou are getting two different message about same water because you adapted to earlier bowls with different temperatures Signal Detection TheoryDecision criterionA personal standard of certainty before a person will say that they detect a stimulusThe decision criterion is affected by o Conservativeness or boldnessBold subjects show high HitsHigh False alarmsConservative subjects show high misses and Correct rejections o Increasing rewards for hits or costs for missesHowever Criterions can be manipulated by changing the payoff for each cell of the response matrixby changing the payoffs people will change perception due to risk of saying yes or noThis shows perception is to some extent a decisionSubliminal PerceptionA subliminal stimulus cannot be perceived consciously but do register in the nervous system o the synapse makes subliminal perception possible your system collects information even though you do not perceive it o subliminal messagingadvertisment in movies Stimuli above threshold influence behaviour much more than subliminal stimuliSubliminal stimuli have stronger effects on attitudes o Eg tips at restaurantsup to 25 moreEffects may be due to placebo effects JNDThe difference threshold just noticeable difference or JNDthe smallest difference between two stimuli that people can perceive 50 of the time Webers LawThe smaller the fraction the less change is necessary to produce a JND o Thus only a 2 change is necessary to detect a difference in lifted weights o Compared to a 33 change necessary for a change in the taste of salt to be noticed
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