Psych 1000 – Tuesday January 14 , 2014
Thinking and Problem Solving
• Language Learning
• Heuristic Processing
• Problem Solving
• How do infants acquire language?
• What is thought?
• What shortcuts do people use when problem solving?
Next time: Intelligence
Video: the story of Genie
• Surface vs. deep structure
• Sensitivity to foreign constrats drop as infant approaches 12 months that suggests:
• Infants are hard-wired for language acquisition
The one-work speaker:
• 5-8 months of age infants can respond to parents’ words
• Talking begins around 10-12 months
• Early vocabulary is very simple
o Mama, duck, hi, peekaboo, hot, big #1 word is NO
• Vocabulary is likely to contain objects that infant can manipulate (ex: ball more likely
than ceiling. Since they are able to pick it up and are able to play with the ball)
Note: difficult to tell what kids mean when they use a single word. They tend to under
generalize. (Tend to generalize words like dog, and not able to put concepts together)
The two-word Speaker
• Telegraphic speech
• Starts around 2 years old
• Vocabulary ~ several hundred words
• Ex: “throw ball” “give milk”
• Speech shows proper organization (they say “throw ball” not “ball throw”)
• By 2.5 years old child moves beyond 2 words, and sentences become more complex.
Start searching for rules for generalization.
• 4 or 5 year olds make mistakes in tense (ex: I runned to the store, instead of I ran to the
• Now the child over generalizes rules, but formal schooling takes over.
Nature vs. Nurture
• So far, it seems as if the brain is hard-wired for language
• Will language just develop on its own? (ex: Genie)