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Psychology 1000 (2,472)
Terry Biggs (155)
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Intelligence.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs
Semester
Fall

Description
Intelligence • A concept that refers to individual differences in abilities to: – Acquire knowledge – Think and reason effectively – Deal adaptively with the environment The Psychometric Approach to Intelligence • Psychometrics: the statistical study of psychological tests • The g factor (Spearman, 1923) – Intelligence performance governed by: • General intelligence (g) • Specific abilities • Thurstone’s primary abilities – Intelligence performance governed only by specific abilities Theories • Spearman’s g factor (1904) - a theory of general intelligence termed g • G is a kind of mental energy which flows into everything a person does • A person who is good at mathematics is probably also good at reading comprehension, has a wide vocabulary, etc. • Thus g or general intelligence is a type of mental energy which allows one to be consistently good or poor at a variety of different tasks Spearmans • In addition to g Spearman also proposed that there were special abilities termed s • S is the mental energy specific to a particular task • Therefore if you are good at math it is a combination of g and s • S is necessary to account for variability across tasks (better at some than others) Theories Cont • Thurstone’s (1938) Primary Mental Abilities • Seven Primary Mental Abilities • 1 Spatial visualization 2 Perceptual Speed • 3 Numerical 4 Verbal Meaning • 5 Memory 6 Word Fluency • 7 Reasoning Thurstone • Abilities are viewed as relatively independent of one another • I.e., a person high in spatial ability maybe low in verbal meaning • Although more expansive than Spearman’s theory it is not incompatible with it • Task analyses led Thurstone to believe these seven abilities were required • Many if not most activities require more than one primary ability • E.g., Reading – requires – verbal meaning, word fluency, memory and reasoning Theories Cont • Guilford’s (1961) Structure of Intellect • Recall Spearman’s g & s • Thurstones 7 Primary Mental Abilities • Guilford’s model proposed 120 factors • 3 Basic: 1 Operations (act of thinking) • 2 Contents (terms of thinking –words, symbols) • 3 Products (ideas we come up with) Guilford • Within each basic category there are several sub factors • Operations • Are composed of cognition, memory, divergent thinking, convergent thinking & evaluation • Contents • Are composed of figural, symbolic, semantic, behavioral • Products • Composed of implications, transformations, systems, relations, classes & units • Guilfords model is conceived of as a three dimensional matrix • He postulates that at least one sub-factor from each category is present/necessary to perform a task • E.g., Reading involves semantics (contents) cognitive, memory, evaluation (operations) relations, implications (products) Theories Cont • Burt-Vernon Theory of Intelligence • Hierarchical Theory • Thus unlike Thurstone or Guilford the abilities are NOT viewed as independent but rather certain abilities are nested within others The Cognitive Approach to Intelligence • Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence Theories Cont • Jensen’s Level I & Level II Theory • Arthur Jensen argued that existing theories were overly complex (Guilford?) • He proposed that all tasks could be measured based upon the degree to which they required Level I and Level II abilities Jensen • Level I is composed of simple rote memory • No intentional or conscious transformation of input prior to output (e.g., serial recall) • Level II is composed of complex mental abilities • Input requires conscious transformation prior to output (e.g., recall list in categories) • In this approach Intelligence would be measured on the basis of the types of tasks completed • The more tasks completed correctly requiring complex abilities the higher a person’s intelligence would be rated • Eg., in a multiple choice exam questions can be rated 1) Factual, 2) Comprehension, & 3) Higher order • Regardless of the IQ test employed higher IQ test takers should not only get more questions correct they should get more of types 2 & 3 correct Assessment of Intelligence • Classical Assessment • Psychometric approach • These include Stanford Binet, WAIS, MAB, Raven’s matrices, Porteus Mazes, • Binet scales were developed to originally provide assessment of children in France for the purpose of identifying those in need of remedial education • First scale – the Binet-Simon scale was issued in 1905. Became Stanford- Binet when revised for North America at Stanford University by Terman • 30 tests arranged in order of increasing difficulty – child continued until a series of consecutive wrong answers were obtained • Repeated testing across many different children revealed that at a given age the majority of children got approx the same number of questions correct –a few got less and a few got more • This led to the first normative data set for performance comparison • In 1908 Binet introduced the concept of Mental Age (MA). William Stern (1916) indicated how it could be used in conjunction with chronological age (CA) to produce an Intelligence Quotient • Mental age is based upon the level of tasks completed by a normal group of children at a given chronological age • If a child completes the tasks normally done by children at age 8 CA then regardless of that child’s actual CA their Mental Age is deemed to be 8 Binet’s Assumptions – Mental abilities develop with age – The rate at which people gain mental competence is characteristic of the person and is constant over time Stern’s Intelligence Quotient IQ = MA x 100 CA Stern’s formula: IQ = (MA/CA)*100 • Thus if a child completes the tasks common to children 8 years CA and is him/her self 8 years CA the IQ = 100 • If the child completes the tasks commonly completed by 10 year CA but is 8 years CA the IQ = 125 • If the child completes the tasks commonly completed by a 6 year CA but is 8 years CA the IQ = 75 Types of Tests • Achievement Tests • Designed to discover how much someone knows • Aptitude Tests • Measure potential for future learning and performance Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale • This was the first Adult intelligence test (Weschler, 1939) • The test is divided into two parts which roughly correspond to the divisions proposed by Burt & Vernon • Verbal & Performance • Each have 4 subsets of test items Verbal • Vocabulary • Simple arithmetic • Information • Judgment Performance • Block design • Incomplete pictures • Puzzles • Pictures to arrange as a story • Test produces multiple scores • A score for each subtest • An aggregate score for each major section • Overall IQ score Multi – Dimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB) Douglas Northrop Jackson II 1929 - 2004 • MAB (Jackson, 1983) • IQ measures on this test correlate r=.91 with those from the WAIS-R • Advantage is that it is entirely paper & pencil • This allows for the testing of multiple persons simultaneously a huge cost advantage for users • Also split into 2 sections – Verbal & Performance • Each section has 5 subtests vs the 4 in the WAIS Other Psychometric Approaches to Intelligence • Cattell and Horn’s Theory – Crystallized intelligence • Ability to apply previously learned knowledge to current problems – Fluid intelligence • Ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations without any previous knowledge • Garner’s (1983) Multiple Intellegences – There are six relatively independent intelligences • Linguistic, mathematical, visual-spatial – Tested by current intelligence tests • Musical, body-kinesthetic, personal – Not tested by current intelligence tests – Savants : Cognitively disabled people with a striking skill in a specific area, like music or math ability. • Emotional Intelligence – Ability to read other’s emotions accurately – Respond accurately to them – Motivate oneself – Be aware of one’s own emotions – Control one’s emotional resonses Controversy • All of the Classical psychometric tests we have examined up to this point have been subject to the criticism that they have cultural biases • Two Unique tests have been developed to address this issue • Raven’s Progressive Matrices & Porteus Mazes
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