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Lecture 3

Sociology 2151 Evolution of Cities - Lecture 3 (William Marshal)

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Sociology 2151A/B
William Marshall

Sociology 2151 – Lecture 3 • Suburbs were new (combined country and city), only people with money could afford to live there. • Development along the transportation routes • Younger people are moving out towards the outer part of the city • People in the middle of the city were older and younger people were around the perimeter (first time for age segregation) • CBD – Central Business District • Most things are done in neighbourhood districts • The core of the city became where the transportation routes intersected • Middle of the 1800’s brought on SES (Social Economic Stratification), separation of the classes, rich areas and poor areas • City grows and expands due to minor technological advances (such as the horse drawn trolley) • Ecological specialization (financial district, meat district….) • Factories began being built away from the center of the town • Family dynamic began to change (nuclearization), two parents and a few dependent children • People began to move away from their family and set up on their own • The purpose of the family changed (family was less needed for education and work) • Patrilineal (through the father’s line) • Women began to be able to voice their opinions • Increased age in marriage and more choice about who your spouse will be. • F. Toennies (1887) – Gemeninschaft • Gemeinshaft – Small town feel, people were social with one another and took an interest, commonality of purpose • Gesellshaft- Disunity, isolation, alienation, egotistical, self-centered, people are spread out and do not take an interest in one another • Toennies predicted that the Gesellshaft will eventually take over and the gemeinshaft will be extinct (the unnatural will take over the natural) • Emile Durkheim (1893) – division of labour in society • Everything is related to specialization of occupation in society (similar occupational outlook as Toennies) • Mechanical solidarity (Gemeinshaft) small town- people are programmed from the day they’re born to live their lives a certain way, social bonds are based on likeness and those bonds are branded into them from birth, they don’t question their way of life • If they violate the rules the community will shun them, or ban them from being a part of the community • Very little division of labour, everyone has a variety of skills and everyone helps everyone else • Organic Solidarity (Gesellshaft)- Life in the city, people are specialized in occupation, division of labour, each part has a specialized function that as a whole make society work, Interdependency (each organ relies on the function of other organs) • Have the ability to develop into your full potential because people have the free will to choose what they want to do with their lives, full potential can only be achieved with free will • People in small communities may not have the options and the ability to live up to their full potential because they are expected to follow a certain course that may not be the best for them • MEMORIZE THE NAME OF THEORISTS • G. Simmel – “Metropolis & mental Life” (1905) • Talks about what cities to do human behaviour (still in print) • In a small town life is slow and habitual, things rarely change, everything is constant and repetitive • In the city there is too much going on to take notice of everythin
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