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Lecture 2

Sociology 2151 Evolution of Cities - Lecture 2 (William Marshal)

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Sociology 2151A/B
William Marshall

26/09/13 Sociology 2151- Lecture 2 City Date Population Area (acres) Paris 1192 59,200 945 Rome 1198 35,000 3450 Venice 1363 77,700 810 London 1377 34,971 720 Amsterdam 1470 7,500 195 • 1100’s, cities were like villages • Limited transportation between cities • Post 1100’s • Discovered crop rotation, kept the soil full of nutrients • Crusades  holy war • Starting to trade goods • Cities started to grow again • Invention of a more effective plough, allowed you to plough more land and turn up more nutrient rich soil • More food was able to be harvested • Brought about more trade and more crusaders • Brought about an age of advancement • Crusaders then started bringing back plagues into Europe from the middle-East (black death) • Populations were reduced by 50-60% (1335-1350) • Most cities lost ~25% of their populations, killing some of Europe’s biggest cities • Lawlessness and depravity began to increase again because people had nothing to lose (assumed they would die) • People lost faith in the church because so many people were dying whether they were religious or not (plague destroyed the control of the catholic church) 26/09/13 • 1500’s – 1700’s = Early Expanding stage • Plague was occurring less frequently which allowed the population to grow, as well as technological advances in nutrition (reduced mortality rates) • Medicine killed more people than it cured • Fertility rates continued to remain high because people were unaware of the reduced mortality rates so they continued reproducing the way they had been in decades past. • They assumed it was the will of God for them to reproduce and have lots of kids • Population explosion (large gap between fertility rate and mortality rate) • Later the realized that it was unnecessary to reproduce so many kids so the population growth slowed • Invention of the cotton-giny allowed them to make clothing more efficiently • People began moving from the rural areas into the cities • Cholera was a big issue in the 1700’s • London in the 1800’s was one of the largest cities, more people were dying than were being born but there were more people immigrating into London than people who were dying so they population continued to grow • Population 1700’s = 5,000,000  1800’s = 9,000,000 • Preindustrial phase 16/1700’s Distinction Between Pre and Urban-Industrial Societies
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