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Sociology and Ad lecture 1.pdf

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Sociology 2172A/B
Shelley Cross- Mellor

Sociology 2172 ▯ Advertising and Society Introduction▯ 
 Marshall McLuhan▯ - letter to profs at western saying: “....”▯ - topic of advertising basically ignored in sociology▯ - stereotyping , consumerism (associated with advertising and sociology)▯ ▯ - values reinforced in ads. or a result of ▯ - ads tell what is needed, certain products in society▯ ▯ ex. brushing teeth▯ - hidden message: if you want to be successful, popular, ex. ▯ - continuously evolving products (didn’t need them before)▯ - more about just selling products▯ ▯ Why Advertising is Studied in Sociology▯ 1. distribution of resources▯ - vast amount of social and economic resources are distributed determined by ads▯ ▯ ex. super bowl campaigns and ads▯ - human capital, people (brilliant) involved in advertising▯ - social institutions (advertising now a main one)▯ - 3500 ads a day, before computer ads▯ 2. impact on society▯ - as technology changes, there are new ways of ads reaching you▯ - major contributor to cultural content▯ - huge impact on society▯ ▯ ex. kleenex (brand name), “diamonds are forever” -- part of love and romance, ▯ came from an ad campaign ▯ 3. agent of social control▯ - what gets you to behave▯ - telling us what’s appropriate, for men vs. women▯ - stereotypes ▯ ▯ ex. Uggs, how they became popular, if you wear them you’ll be popular▯ - normative institution▯ - social institution that dictates how you should be have “the oughts of behavior”▯ - reinforces the values and norms of social institutions and helps create them▯ ▯ Privileged Form of Discourse▯ - where you get important life lessons from▯ - prominence and moral authority▯ - in past: political figures, elders, church ▯ - present: objects▯ - individual expectations, attitudes, sense of identity through consumer goods and media (ads)▯ - now about consumerism, no longer privileged form of discourse▯ - still listen to parents, etc. but less influential▯ - used to have an opportunity for self expression, no longer▯ Sociology 2172 ▯ Advertising and Society Public Opinion▯ - what has greater influence on society?▯ - about half.....▯ - schools 54%▯ - advertising 42%▯ ▯ ▯ - advertising is an art form, positive or negative ? - arguments both ways▯ - most advertising is an insult to one’s intelligence?▯ - yes 60%▯ - ads that are offensive are also effective▯ - approximately 50% report▯ - ads not needed for good products▯ ▯ ▯ ex. Harley Davidson never used to use ads, everyone just knew it was a ▯ ▯ good brand▯ ▯ - ads cannot be believed▯ ▯ ▯ ex. used to not have guidelines▯ - ads do not make products more expensive▯ - ads do not influence consumer choice▯ - often actually are being influenced, when watching behavior▯ - ads do not cause people to spend money unnecessarily▯ - harsh criticism and strong defense▯ - over valuing material things in life (rather than relationships)▯ - subliminal advertising, is used and is effective (not true)▯ - defend with equal enthusiasm▯ - more choices, artistic (awards), better for consumerism -- value▯ ▯ Lecture 2▯ ▯ Types of Advertising (products)▯ 1. Ambient Advertising▯ - intrusive ads in public places (were most familiar with)▯ - everywhere (bathrooms, etc.)▯ - avg. 3500 ads/ day▯ - ad clutter .. how do you stand out?▯ - both drawing attention away from competing products, and unrelated ones▯ - criticisms within industry▯ - key people that are critical about where we are placing ads▯ - Bob Garfield - ‘environment pollutants’▯ - amount of ads we are exposed to ▯ ▯ - unusual ads emerged in the 80’s (ex. parking meters, cow ads)▯ - first billboard in North America was Coca-cola▯ - ads are witty and creative (unarguable)▯ - 3D billboards, mobile/floating billboards (trucks/boats), umbrellas, swimming pools, airports, sports events, taxis, elevators, milk (scent strips)...everywhere!!▯ - as technology changes so do the advertisements ▯ - placements important▯ Sociology 2172 ▯ Advertising and Society - “brand tribes” .. buying all nike or all coke products▯ - product placement - where we see products and the brand in shows, etc. ▯ - social advertising - trying to change behaviors▯ - taxis: “the beauty of this is we can reach people when they’re out of their homes, money is in their pockets and stores are still open”▯ ▯ - complaints can result in ads being taken down▯ - got milk, cookie scent strips .. complaints: allergies, unhealthy (obesity), poor people catching the bus▯ - air ads - 30% retention 80% readership▯ - one of the best ways to advertise, however very expensive▯ - outer space ads - no where is safe from commercialization▯ - capable of being recognized by someone on earth without a telescope or other technological devices▯ - about the size of the moon, a banner 1 mile X 0.5 mile▯ - up until now, not allowed due to astronomical observations (FAA)▯ - nothing about moral or aesthetic reasoning ▯ 2. Stealth Endorses▯ - use or wear products in public appearances, interviews▯ - “branding” celebrities (ex. Tiger Woods - Nike)▯ - do NOT promote the product, just “happen” to be wearing that brand▯ - studies show celebrities aren’t that great to sell (because we know they’re getting paid)▯ - have to be careful who’s representing the company▯ 3. Naming Rights▯ - turning public spaces into commodities▯ ▯ ▯ ex. Sky Dome into Rogers Center ▯ - happening more as places don’t have enough funds (caving to pressures of easy money)▯ - dating website for people who are already married▯ - immoral ? .. they say it’s not their problem▯ - try to buy naming rights for Meadowlands after city of Phoenix wouldn’t play ball ... refused, and offered 25 mill for a 5 year term, but would go higher, tried other places but always turned down▯ - logo: life’s too short have an affair, very provocative and inappropriate ▯ - bad representations▯ 4. Body Tattooing ▯ - can auction off areas of your body (temporary or permanent)▯ - more sellers than buyers▯ - best suited for youth market (edgier)▯ - better for brand marketing than product▯ - often have rules (no beer or cigarettes)▯ - however, with permanent tats .. often become outdated ▯ - more of a fad rather than a trend▯ - tattooing athletes▯ - Nevada Athletic commission (NAC)▯ Sociology 2172 ▯ Advertising and Society - “if they want to advertise on the trunks, it is fine with us, but we feel that the body is not meant to advertise”▯ - distracting to judges▯ - demeaning to the sport▯ - dangerous if inky went into the eyes (damaging).. proven false▯ - paid more depending on how good the athlete is▯ - Golden Palace .. against amendment rights, no evidence of others▯ - couldn’t not allow them, are allowed to put them on the backs▯ - NBA .. no commercial advertising on players, coaches, floors etc. ▯ - sanctions against it being in a league▯ 5. Product Placement▯ - in past: very careful not to reveal product▯ - now: product placement fills in movies and tv▯ - beginning with E.T. and reeses pieces (m&m’s was asked)▯ - before, no one knew about them, a week after the movie everyone knew about reeses pieces▯ - James Bond movies - Visa, BMW - cross placement▯ 6. New Ways to Integrate Advertising and Content▯ ▯ ex. Will and Grace▯ - key character wore a pink polo, at end of the show a clip told them to go to polo and buy the shirt▯ - polo is 50% owned by polo ▯ ▯ Interactive TV ▯ - can click on anything in the show and you’re able to order them▯ ▯ In Movie Theaters▯ - Cinema Billboard Network boasts “we have a captive audience watching your advertisement. No interruptions! ...”▯ ▯ Buena Vista▯ - we do not believe people should be held hostage of unavoidable commercials in theaters any more than on their telephones▯ - theaters have to say when the commercials start and when the show starts▯ ▯ Ralph Nader says “ ....”▯ ▯ Lecture 3▯ ▯ The History of Advertising▯ - 1000s of years▯ - advertising persuades, informs and brings us together▯ - can be product, location or service advertising▯ - ex. concert location▯ preliterate period: 3000-400 BC▯ - limited writing skills and technology▯ - 1200 BC: painted or carved messages on stones (symbols)▯ - 6th Century BC: town criers (oral advertising)▯ - first government sanctioned form of advertising▯ Sociology 2172 ▯ Advertising and Society - oral advertising is the most common form of advertising throughout history▯ - advantages: reach large audiences, could go to where the people were, thought to be important and carrying important information, persuasive, effective▯ - disadvantages: relies on forces you can’t control (transient), costly, unreliable (weather, grumpy)▯ classical period: 400 BC - 1400 AD▯ ▯ - oral media▯ ▯ - street advertising▯ - town crier▯ - now signs in merchants windows▯ - can use some texts (more of the population is literate)▯ - important events or services▯ - personal ‘classified’ advertising (if wife/slave ran away, wine and goods to sell, rooms to rent)▯ - creation of trademarks▯ - protects the buyers▯ late middle ages: 1400 - 1600▯ - false advertising (the north american experience - first done in Britain)▯ - brochures, pamphlets ▯ - hopeful overstates, first deceptive adv
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