Class Notes (807,841)
Canada (492,871)
Sociology (3,130)
Lecture 5

Sociology 2206A/B LECTURE 5.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Sociology 2206A/B
William Marshall

2206 Monday, February 6, 2012 Sampling (Cont…) First Theorem -Tells us the shape of the sampling distribution and tells us its mean and standard deviation If we begin with a trait that is normally distributed across a population (IQ, Height) and take an infinite number of equally sized random samples from that population, the sampling distribution of sample means will be normal Central Limit Theorem -For any trait or variable, even those that are not normally distributed in the population, as the sample size grows larger the sampling distribution of sample means will become normal in shape Sampling Error -The difference between the statistic (sample) and parameter (population) -Theoretical Construct- it is impossible to know the true population parameter -Should theoretically be reduced with a representative sample (the difference should be minimized) -Confidence intervals-allow for the possibility of error (ex. Seen a lot in election polls) Other issues related to Sampling: -Hidden Populations (usually have to use non-probability methods b/c small in size) -Sample Size-rule of thumb: Small population (<1,000)=30% Medium population (10,000)=10% Large Population (150,000)=1% Extremely Large population (>10 million)=025% Subgroup analysis=50/group -Under-coverage (certain groups missing from sample) -Non-response/missing data (i.e. Won’t answer questions pertaining to income) -Response Bias (when people response how they think the researcher wants them to respond—answering questions in a way that are socially desirable) -The instrument itself (wording of questions, ordering of questions) Survey Research Why Surveys? -Exploratory, descriptive, explanatory research (very versatile) -Great for Large Samples (less costly, relatively quick) -Sampling methods are very important -Great for measuring attitudes (Likert) 2206 Monday, February 6, 2012 Strengths and Weaknesses of Survey Research -Advantages: Reliability Can describe large populations Flexibility Standardized -Disadvantages: Validity Superficiality Cannot modify questionnaire in field Truthfulness Types of Surveys -Self-administered (mail, phone, e-mail/web) -Interview Surveys What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? -Completion rate is higher with interview surveys -Interview surveys reduce the rate of people responding with “I don’t know”/ “I don’t care” A questionnaire should include: -Contact letter -Information letter (consent) -Instructions -A method of return (if necessary) Questions on Survey -Survey questions should be:  Mutually exclusive (each respondent should only be able to choose one choice) Mutually exhaustive (everyone should be able to choose a suitable answer) -Open-ended questions must be coded Issues: Misunderstanding, Research Bias When Designing Questions… -Must be voluntary -Make items clear -Avoid double-barreled questions (two-questions at once—avoid “and”) -Must be possible to answer all questions accurately (avoid hypothetical’s, or require expertise) -Short (length of questions, types of words, length of survey) -Avoid biased or leading questions -Allow a pass 2206 Monday, February 6, 2012 When Designing a Questionnaire -General question format -Professional looking, easy to read -A variety of types of questions -Keep the order in mind -Write to your audience (Surveys generally written at an elementary grade level –gr. 7) Methodology as a Field of Study Methodological Trends -In the 1970’s people thought that phone interviews would replace face-to-face interviews completely- this has not happened -The future of surveying is more likely to use multiple/different modes; rather than have new ones entirely replace old ones “We live in a time when surveyors are more likely to be creating a survey methodology that works best for their population than simple adopting a standard methodology recommended in survey texts” Greater Use of Mixed-Mode Designs -Lower response rates to surveys (telephone especially) -Attempt to reduce cost -Offering choices increases response rates Experimental Research Introduction -Experiments are part of the traditional science model -Involves taking “action” and observing the consequences of this action -Can collect data using rigorous controls (One method where you can legitimately find causality) When do we Use Experiments? -Time is a priority between variables -Consistency in relationship -Strong correlation -When working with situations we can manipulate -Trying to control elements that would be difficult/unethical to stimulate in real life -Few Variables 2206 Monday, February 6, 2012 Topics Appropriate for Experiments -Excellent for hypothesis testing -Explanatory research -Small group interaction -Narrow Scope/scale (micro) -Two Types: Laboratory Settings (Traditional) -Used in psychology Natural Settings (Field Exper
More Less

Related notes for Sociology 2206A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.