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Week 9- Corrections in Canada Lecture Note

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Sociology 2253A/B
Jennifer Silcox

11/13/2013 11:12:00 AM Week 9: Corrections in Canada Brief History  Three major changes occurred during the 17th and 18th centuries that influenced the creation of the modern prisons: 1. A shift in punishments 2. Laws determining imprisonment 3. Age of Enlightenment  Public executions vs the deprivation of liberty  You have to be convicted of a crime to be in jail  First criminal prison opened in 1654 in Amsterdam History Continued  History of Federal Correctional Facilities o Pennsylvania System (USA) and the Auburn System o 1832 the first federal prison in Canada opens (Kingston, Ontario) o Twentieth Century -”Policy of Normalization” o 1935 -Rehabilitative ideal o 1960s -Reintegration model o 1990s -Psychological-based risk prediction ideologies  Classical theory: people being capable, rational and free will  More and more prisons being built  Pennsylvania system reflected the Quaker influence and inmates were isolated from everything and everyone and spent one hour outside and rest of time reading bible or reflecting on their crimes  Auburn system- criminals have to do hard work this was constructed with cells one on top of the other  HARD WORK WILL REFORM INDIVIDUALS while Penn is the reflection and bible will change people  Reflection in Penn is similar to the quiet time in Auburn  Kingston included most of the ideas of the Auburn system  Conditions were harsh, punishments were harsh, extreme forms of discipline  20 century treatments were more popular and vocational and educational training  Rehab Ideal: rehab as a science  Idea that experts are best able to treat people  Reintegration Model: prisoner rights, History of Federal Corrections for women  Women jailed at the Kingston Penitentiary  Prison for Women (called P4W and was in Kingston) o Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women (1989) o Royal Commission (Arbour Report, 1996) o When did P4W close? Why?  Were seen as an inconvenience  Prison for women was opened when this wasn’t seen as efficient and was open until recently  Such few women were in trouble that they were transported to other places  Often (1989) documented how programs and services were barely comparable to ones offered to men because so little time and money spent on programs and were not considered at an equal  1989 called for closure of P4W and replacement of 5 correctional facilities across Canada  poor conditions in P4W and conditions  Arber report talked about poor conditions and sexual abuse going on in the prison and it closed in 2000 History of Fed. Corrections for Aboriginal Populations  Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples recommendations for Aboriginal offenders.  Agreements between Aboriginal communities and federal government to provide facilities in mid 1990s for minimum security Aboriginal offenders. o to include teachings of aboriginal teachings in federal offenders and management by aboriginal agencies Role of Correctional institutions in Canada  Since correctional facilities were first introduced, three general models of correctional facilities have emerged. o The Custodial Model o The Rehabilitation Model (critiqued by Robert Martinson et al.) o The Reintegration Model  Which model is the most influential today?  only deals with minimal offence aboriginals and usually only have space for 30 to 40 programs  three models: o TCM- based on idea that prisoners are incarcerated for incapacitation and deterrence, general and specific types of deterrents  All these decisions in this model are about maintaining control, security and discipline o Rehabilitation model: this model became popular in the 1950s and started to fade in the 1970s as a results of critics  Emphasis on individualist treatments  Concerns of control are secondary  Correct problematic behavior o Reintegration Model: prepare criminals to reintegrate in society, provide criminals with the needs and skills to function adequately in society  As a result you would have emphasis on responsibility and accountability of the skills you are learning and take responsibility for the crimes you’ve committed Goals of corrections are relatively similar just done in a different way Institutional Corrections There are three correctional systems operating custodial facilities. Jurisdictions:  Provincial: jails, detention centres, correctional facilities  The Ministry of Correctional Services Act in Ontario  Federal: Correctional Services of Canada (CSC)  The Correctional and Conditional Release Act (CCRA)  three systems: youth, and provincial and federal system for adults Security Levels  Until 1981-1982 there were three levels of security.  Starting in 1981-1982 the CSC began operating under the basis of seven levels of security.  Federal female offenders classified using a different scale: the Security Management System  There is also the dynamic security level in the CSC, which refers to a policy objective that optimizes a safe environment for all employees, offenders, and the public through meaningful interaction: optimizes safe environment for workers, visitors, etc.  three levels of security: maximum, minimum and medium  maximum: likely to escape and cause harm to community, security place may have more guards, higher fences, more restrictions  medium: inmate is likely to escape but they’re more unlikely to cause serious harm in the community : example chain linked fences or high fences  minimum: not likely to escape but if they did they are not likely to cause harm; inmates can literally walk out of facility if they want to, no fences,  seven levels of security o LEVEL 1: community correctional facilities o Level 2: forestry and work camps o LEVEL 3-5: were considered medium security o LEVEL 6: maximum security o LEVEL 7: super max security, most dangerous offenders  female offenders are classified with a security management system approved in 1995  guidelines would take into consideration the different needs and risks of women as opposed to men Assessment of Offenders  Comprehensive intake assessment o Static Risk Factors o Dynamic Risk Factors/Criminogenic Needs  Four Principles: 1. Risk: risk of reoffending, would be believed under risk ideology; If you can find a risk you can reduce it 2. Need: factors related to offender that would have an impact on reducing reoffending 3. Responsively: matching services and programs with offenders learning styles; greater impact on reoffending 4. Professional discretion: During transfer they are classified where they need to go: classification assessment: CIA Static risk factors are factors that cannot be changed: ex being arrested at 15 will not change your age wont change or criminal history wont change  Dynamic Risk Factors: friends with other people involved you just not be friends with them. If you have substance abuse problems with rehab you might not have them Ex. Dynamic Risk: Substance Use among Offenders  40-50% of crimes are linked to substance use o What is the difference between a direct link and an indirect link?  Direct meaning you become violent or physical, indirect would be stealing food because your money was done because of drugs  Substance abuse top reason for reoffending and related to a lot of crime  Substance use in Prison: o Detoxification o Security concerns Institutions and Security Designs Types of Institutions:  Maximum-Security;  Medium-Security; and  Multi-level Security: all levels of security but are segregated from each other  New-Generation Facilities (Podular design): o contain 1-20 people cells and all daily activities would take place in one area and treatment would take place in another pod o Would use direct supervision model, which involves direct contact with correctional officers. o These type of facilities have less violence and less escapes because of the constant surveillance What are some of the differences in the older versus newer designs of correctional institutions? Older were made without thinking of how small structures would impact the health of inmates and loss of individuality Newer ones facilitate life skills you learn how to interact better Direct Supervision Approach Offender Population Profile  In 2008 there were 36,921 incarcerated in both federal and provincial institutions  Women made up 6% of the federal population.  What was the median age of federal offenders? 33  Aboriginal populations make up 3% of the total Canadian population, however they represent 18% of the total federal population.  Complex populations and Correctional Programs Female and Male Facilities  Which sex has less extensive criminal histories and serves shorter sentences? Women, links back to types of crimes  Which sex has higher rates of mental health needs? women  How is the incarceration experience different for women and men?  Which sex has a higher cost of incarceration?male-147,000max security, 93000 for minimum, and for women 230,000 in fed pen  (2013, CBC) Profile of Federally sentenced Women Aboriginal Inmates  Well documented that Aboriginals are overrepresented in both Federal (18%) and Provincial (21%) correctional facilities. o In federal facilities the rate was 53% Aboriginals to 40% non-Aboriginals.  The Gladue Decisions -Jamie Lynn Gladue: guilty of murder while intoxicated but courts didn’t consider cultural issues  Corrections and Conditional Release Act -few undertakings have been accomplished Older Offenders
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