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22 Apr 2014

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Lecture Two Police: Organization and Powers
Structure of Canadian policing (4 tiered system)
Federal force
oRCMP responsible to the solicitor-general of Canada under the RCMP Act for
enforcement of federal statutes such as the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act,
the Securities Act; don’t usually investigate Criminal Code violations, but may be
asked to; also responsible for national security issues (such as protecting foreign
dignitaries and/or high-ranking public officials)
Provincial forces enforce both Criminal Code and Provincial Offences
oRCMP (under contract to the province) their role remains defined under the
RCMP act, but they are responsible to both the solicitor-general and the province
to which they are contracting for
Ensuring public safety and crime prevention for unincorporated areas (ie.
Highways and lands outside of municipalities)
They also work as an information clearinghouse and provide assistance
to municipal forces on issues relating to: electronic crime, organized
crime, crime detection laboratories, CPIC or the Canadian Police
Information Center, and the Canadfian Police College
oProvincial forces (OPP, etc) responsibilities same as above
Municipal forces
oResponsible for: enforcement of criminal code offences, provincial quasi-
offences, and municipal by-law infractions
oRCMP or provincial force (under contract to a municipality, eg. Burnaby or
oMunicipal force include independent city forces such as the London Police, the
Toronto Police Service and the Vancouver Police Department or regional forces
composed of multiple jurisdiction banned together (Peel Regional Police in
Aboriginal police forces
oAre essentially treated as municipal forces; accountability structure us
same/similar to that of a municipal force (local control); enforcement of federal,
provincial and municipal offences
Police Duties
Principal duties:
oPreserving the peace
oPreventing crimes and other offences
oAssisting victims of crime
oThe investigation of crimes
oThe apprehension of criminals
oRecommending charges and participating in prosecutions
oExecuting warrants
However, as a 24-hour service provider, they are called upon to do much more than this.
Provide some examples (taking people to find shelter, kids back on buses, settling
disputes, helping lost people)
Police Powers
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