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4 Pages

Course Code
Sociology 3357F/G
Jordan Harel

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Lecture Nine ▯November 28, 2013 Prevention, Control and Public Perception Opportunity • WCC shaped by legal apparatus • Objectively­­lax laws, less regulation • Subjectively­­regulatory violation  ▯criminal offence Controls • Two types: o Legal controls/remedies:  From within legal systems  Criminal/civil/regulatory  Penalties o Extralegal  Not state sanctioned  Organizations  Internal self­control/values Legal remedies • Street crime­­criminal law • White collar crime two additional types: o Civil o Regulatory • Three approaches: differ in philosophy, sanctioning and legal standards Criminal justice system • Two objectives and functions: o Control o Prevention • White collar criminals no exception • Criminal law used to punish and convey message­­harmful, immoral and not to be  tolerated Criminal justice system and legal philosophy • Beccaria: social contract­­give up portion of freedom for peace, safety and protection  against harm • Violation of law contra to common interest • Punishment: both a need and responsibility Criminal justice system • Bentham: must be reasoned and fair, free from abuse • Safeguards in place to protect rights and freedoms • Instances: • Guilt: beyond reasonable doubt • Evidence: gathering and handling­­stringent rules • Legal rights: attorney, trial by jury • Guilty mind and intent: Mens Rea Criminal Justice System: Case Example • Gwendolyn Hemphill • Ex­Washington Teachers Union executive assistant • Accused of: o Embezzlement/conspiracy/mail fraud/wire fraud/false statements/money  laundering/theft • Sentence: o Seven years in prison o $5,000,000 to pay back • Government: actus reus (committed crime), mens rea) intentional/knowledge of law  breaking) • Ideal case: clear link between defendant and crimes (evidence, witnesses) • Appropriate punishment (based on Beccaria and Bentham) • One that provides deterrence­­general and specific Criminal justice system • Prosecution of corporate crime: difficult • One reason: who is responsible? • Decision making: fragmented, multiple people involved • In such a process­­claim ignorance to protect from being liable for potential crime or  wrongdoing • Accountability moves from individual to corporation • Recall, difficult to prosecute corporations • Thus, challenging them in criminal court is rare • Recent focus of US government: officers and managers • “Yet…criminal prosecution of individuals within corporations is uncommon, expensive  and often unsuccessful Civil law enforcement • Easier to employ than criminal prosecution • Evidence: lower standard • Preponderance vs. reasonable doubt • Punishment: economic vs. deprivation of freedom • Decrease freedom deprivation = d
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