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sociology lecture chap 2

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Sociology 1020
Michael Haight

Scientific Versus Unscientific Thinking • In everyday life, our biases easily influence our observations. • Biases often lead us to draw incorrect conclusions about what we see. • Ten common errors are regularly found in unscientific thinking. Types of Unscientific Thinking Unscientific knowledge can be based on: 1.Tradition 2.Authority 3.Casual observation 4.Overgeneralization 6. Qualification 7. Illogical reasoning 8. Ego-defence 9. Premature closure of inquiry 5. Selective
observation 10.Mystification 4 • Sample
 • Population Samples and Populations • Examples? The Research Cycle Six steps in the sociological research cycle: 1.Formulate research question
2.Review existing research literature 3.Select research method 4.Collect data
5.Analyze data (most challenging step) 6.Publish results The Research Cycle Ethical Considerations • Treatment of subjectsIs needed for respecting rights of research subjects, including: i. ...
ii. ...
iii. ... iv. ...
• Treatment of research resultsConcern about plagiarism, especially with spread of World Wide Web. Measuring Variables • Sociologists need to translate abstract propositions into testable forms. • Operationalization: • A variable:
• Hypothesis: Translating Propositions into Hypotheses Copyright © 2013 Nelson Education Ltd. THE MAIN METHODS OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH Main Methods of Sociology
The four main methods in sociological research: 1. Experiments 2. Surveys 3.Field Research 4.Analysis of existing documents and official statistics Experiments • Experiment: • Usesrandomization: Variables • Dependentvariable: • Independentvariable: Steps in a Simple Experiment • Reliability: • Validity: Reliability and Validity Surveys • Ask people questions about their knowledge, attitudes, or behaviour either in a face-to-face or telephone interview or in a paper-and- pencil format. Closed- and Open-Ended Questions • Questionnaires may contain two types of questions: 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 4. ... Threats to Validity Reading Tables
• One of most useful tools for analyzing survey data is the contingency table: – A cross-classification of cases by at least two variables that allows researcher to see how, if at all, variables are associated. – Allows researchers to examine effects of control variables on original association. • A relationship: Relationships than 100,000 Watching TV and Approval of Violence (in percent) Determining Causes • To establish whether an independent variable causes change in a dependent variable, researchers must satisfy three criteria: 1. ... 2. ... 3. ... 25 Relationship Test and Sequencing 1. Relationshiptest: 2. Sequencing: 26 Non-spuriousness • Connections b
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