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Soc Theory karl marx.docx

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Sociology 2240E
Charles Levine

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Soc Theory January 15 th Essays: - Understand what general themes are, and don’t worry about all the little stuff that doesn’t make sense - Expected to cite from the book, things that you’ve managed to tease out of the book that you think have to do with what your talking about - Spend the second part as answering the questions asked - Marx: - Philosophical writings: alienation, exploitation, negative aspects of economy, neg. aspects of division of labour - The Jewish Question begins with reference to some guy by the name of Bruno Bouwer (written by Marx about him) - Trying to figure out whether or not Jews were allowed to become citizens in 19 century, Bouwer trying to find out the - Marx Bouwers work as addressing the rights of citizenship, but also freedom for all people (how do we get people to be free and actually live within society) - Bouwer comes up with the explanation of equal rights, but in public one respects the responsibilities and duties of citizenship  Marx then citizens this, and thinks its false (it is) - Also think religion is bad whether is public or private - Questions whether citizenship really give people freedom and rights, argues it doesn’t and all it really gives is people privilege (people get rights taken away technically, but if you can take away right then it was never really a right in the first place but instead a privilege) - Asks what makes a right a privilege: rights and - What produces this issue that allows some people to take away the rights of other? Unequal distribution of power how? MONEY Last week: 3 Basic Ideas in Marx’s work 1) Species Being: the idea that we can and we should recognize ourselves as members of the same species - One could say that as our species develops we gain greater insight into what this idea means - No one can logically undermine what people are now saying about things, we are becoming educated -One of the things that makes us members of the same species and differentiates us from other species is that we labour (and we do it intentionally) we have ideas and we objectify them in reality and make them happen/exist -Others argue that labour extends to everything we do -Therefore there is a relationship between what’s in the mind and what we do, a natural spontaneous expression, we should have in some sense the ability to control what we make, objectify ones self-concept exists through the doing of what one does - Some labour has more value then others, if (ask for help on this) - We also do this with “the Other” in association with the other - The coordination of our labour with that of the labour of others has to be organized in a way that sees our - If our labour activity is in the association with others it must be properly regulated and has to be moral mutual respect - Species being is realized when the relationships among persons, which include the relationships with nature, among people and labour are non- exploitive - Insists that our ideas will not encourage exploitation whether for the environment or the integrity of other human beings all human beings should be respected. 2) Hagel and ideas - Dialectical logic that Marx uses, the idea that things are always in process, always to striving to become actually what they always were potentially Accepted by Marx - Marx doesn’t like Hagel other idea that all human history is pushed by the unfolding of ideas, the biggest of which is reason ideas cause reality ^^ Marx argues that ideas are only there because the reality of some things exist (for example the idea to go get a coffee on break is only there because coffee, and Tim Horton’s or whatever exists) -Marx inverts Hagel, turns his idea upside-down ideas don’t come out of nowhere; they come out of action and objects in the world - For example; god is an idea, for Marx what we do produces God - What is the role of ideas? Are they true or false? In what sense can they be false?  Marx questions the purpose of ideas from Hagel 3) Historical and Structural mentality -Marx is saying that social change is developmental and not simply evolution in other words there is a goal the realization of species being -There are moments of abrupt social change (can refer to like 100 years) -Modes of Production: different societies have different modes of production - Every society has an economic reality, which consists of: 1) Forces of production 2) Relations of production - At any historical period we have certain forces of production, and then we have ways or patterns of relations, which are to be efficient ways of using the forces of production - Sees communism as a time in which the relations of production will finally be democratic by the time we get to communism he argues that the relations of production will all be non-exploitive - Saying that communism is the democratic control of the forces of production, which means that communism couldn’t involve private ownership of the FOP, because that wouldn’t be democratic - By implication, every other circle (in the diagram) aka time period, is exploitive every other time period has fail to achieve this moral realization of mutual respect - (But keep in mind Marx has no idea what comes after that the rid of exploitation is the end of the line for him) - If realities are exploited, and all of history this has been the case, then something else is true  they will generate something called alienation Exploitation: the abstraction of surplus value from the labour of others - If you take the extra value produced by the labour of someone, well first it means that they would have more power of that person,  if a human being can be exploited, then that means others have the power to be exploitive Alienation: to Marx alienation is a social behavioral cognitive phenomenon in which people produce things, forget they are the producers of those things, and allow the things produced to in some sense to oppose them. -Instead of celebrating you life in the objects you create, they oppose you -Anything that infers with what labour ought to be, and from seeing your own development in what you do, is alienating. -Exploitative environments produce alienation - We are exploited all over the place, and we are all alienated - Expect we live like this because its hard not too, you couldn’t “live” thinking like this - Why? Exploitation has to get so bad that everyone has to be completely pissed off, and want to change it. - Exploiters can increase surreal and actual distance between human beings  increasingly isolate people people will then not be likely to care, or think about these things, they will be in a sense, in their own worlds - A second way is to fill peoples heads with ideas that have nothing to do with that exploitive reality  by giving society things like Facebook, and twitter and all that, we are caring less and less about what is actually happening in the world What is the role of ideas? Are they true or false? In what sense can they be false? - Exploitive realities fill peoples minds with false ideas so we can cope with everything going on - Ideas of happiness is false for example, or ideas of wonderful marriage is false - Any idea that you have that isn’t consistent with the moral obligation of human beings is false - If you live in exploitation you will experience alienation and you will do everything in your power to ignore it nd Jan 22 , 2013 Study for Exam: - Dorothy Smith contemp. Feminism - Anthony Giddens - Pierre Bourdeu - Habermess - Foucault social theorist, rather then sociologist Karl Marx Exploitation Alienation  False Ideas -All of history, including present day capitalism, has been based on modes of production that always produce exploitation and alienation. - Exploitation and alienation are intolerable, and dangerous to think about, and so the people who are doing the exploiting
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