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Early Greece This note includes prehistory and the eras within Early Greece, the lecture get into detail about historic sites as well as things like domestication. The end of the note also provides the beginning of the Bronze Age

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Debra Foran

Lecture 2 World (CL101-A) September 16th, 2010 Early Greece Prehistory and Early Greece: Paleolithic— 40000—7000BCE Neolithic— 7000—3000BCE Early Bronze Age— 3000—2100BCE Middle Bronze Age— 2100—1600BCE Prehistory: —small population until 150 000BP (before present) —number of sites increased and included open-air and cave locations —new tools appear in mid-paleolithic (more diversity of tools such as harpoons for hunting fish, and bone needles of sewing) —humans became familiar with seasonality of certain foods —population size increased —lived at sites for a short period of time —moved around based on factors such as season, water, hunting, visibility, plants —access to stone (to tools) Franchthi Cave: —inhabited from 20 000 BCE to 3000 BCE —seasonal visitor attracted by water source and shelter —beginning of neolithic (c. 7000BCE) > started producing food —evidence shows that inhabitants hunted deer and smaller game, caught fish, gathered wild cereal, wild peas, beans and nuts —12 000 BCE > climate change, Greece became warmer —8000 BCE > see presence of obsidian (glass like), used for making tools, good for surgery > comes from the island of Melos (120km away from site, the cave) —they travelled there by foot. —they had contact with people outside their main land —harvesting food with tools made from obsidian —burials found in caves, ritual of the dead— care was taken for those people who died (similar to modern- day) —domestication of animals and plants (7000 BCE—Neolithic) Domestication: —necessary for development of civilization —influenced by the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) —seemed to have occurred instantly in Greece Neolithic (7000—3000BCE) —small villages —hunting and foraging alongside agriculture and pastoralism —domesticated plants and animals-introduced by the Near East and to weave cloth on a loom —egalitarian social relations —lowlands, access to water, fertile soil, farming village in Greece called Thessaly, larger more organized village —still hunted wild animals and plants —mainly farmed grain —pastoralism was a back up, pastoralism is keeping animals such as sheep, goats, cows, etc. —relied on social ties and social relations—in case their crops died Lecture 2 World (CL101-A) September 16th, 2010 —communal storage areas where they could rely on their village —shelters: mud brick, sunken floors —household is the centre the economy; it always comes back to the house —houses close by together—sharing cooking responsibilities -common cooking area —artisans created figurines made out of clay and marble of animals and people(mostly females), elegantly shaped, and brightly decorates pottery —agriculture allowed for permanent settlement —villages at this time were most likely egalitarian > no inequality outside sex, age and skills —leadership was temporary-switched between men —with the growth of population a leadership role because more long-term Dimini: —late neolithic site —starting to see a hierarchy —one larger structure, singled out, own courtyard, this is a segregated house —more organized —more sites with organization began to appear —each house had its own cooking space —not much sharing ‘Final Neolithic’ (4000—3000BCE) —6000–4000BCE > Greece keeps pace with Near East —urbanism in a place called Uruk —Near East experiences an urban explosion (c. 3000BCE) —emergence of social pyramid in Near East —temple and priesthood was never the centre of power in Greece —social hierarchy> the priest was not as high up in the Greek culture compared to surrounding Eastern worlds Early Bronze Age: —3000–2100BCE (3rd millennium) —begins with the arrival of bronze metallurgy —some settlement existed throughout the period, others only during the mid/late 3rd millennium —imposing building indicate a centralized authority —craft specialization
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