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Lecture 22

BI110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Glycogen, Starch, Hydrolysis

Course Code
Matthew Smith

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BI110 Lecture 22 (Monday November 6th)
Glucose Storage
Glycogen has a protein molecule and starch does not
o They are also linked together
In animal cells, excess glucose is stored
as glycogen
o Glycogen is stored in muscle
cells and liver cells.
since muscle cells need
a lot of ATP
The liver stores
glycogen to be used
throughout the whole
Muscle cells store it for
their own personal use
o 1. When stored in muscle cells,
it is used to provide ATP for
muscle contraction.
o 2. The liver stores glycogen for the whole body, releasing it when it is needed elsewhere
o An enzyme will cleave glucose molecules off and send them to glycolysis when needed
In plants, glucose is stored as starch, another large, branched chain of glucose molecules (ex.
o Starch molecules are so large they from granules (little grains)
How others sugars contribute to glycolysis
Remember: glucose isn’t the only thing that can be used in glycolysis
The hydrolysis of some disaccharides produce glucose molecules, that directly enter glycolysis.
o Disaccharides can be cleaved into monosaccharides of glucose for glycolysis
Monosaccharides can be converted to glycolysis intermediates
o Remember that products of glycolysis can be diverted away and used for other things
o Intermediates of pathway can be produced in other ways and enter pathway mid-
Monosaccharides, other than glucose, are converted into glycolysis intermediates that come
later in the pathway.

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Beta Oxidation
Fatty acids can be used for the ETC and citric acid cycle
Fatty acids are shortened by β-oxidation.
o Break down of a long hydrocarbon chain through a process that produces two carbon
o 2 carbons at a time are removed
from the chain to make an acetyl
group, which is then linked to Co-
enzyme A
o Second product is produced from
reduction of FAD and NAD+ to make
o Does not involve glycolysis, but
produces many products of glycolysis
and pyruvate oxidation
ATP is not produced directly in βoxidation,
rather electron carriers (NADH and FADH2)
and acetyl-CoA are generated, which feed the
ETC and citric acid cycle.
Fatty acids produce more energy per unit of
weight compared to glucose

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Regulation of cellular respiration
Amount of energy needed by a cell is constantly
changing, and is different for different types of
o So, cells need a way to provide more ATP
when required, and a way to slow down
production of ATP when not as much is
How does the cell do it?
o Must monitor energy state of the cell and
respond accordingly
o Can do this by being sensitive to
concentrations of products of the
High ADP and high NAD+ levels
indicate low energy state in cell
*Amount of ADP is directly
related to amount of ATP
Same as with NAD+ and
NADH as well as FAD and
o Green arrows pathways getting turned
o Red arrows pathways getting turned off
o High concentrations of ATP and NADH
slows down and inhibits the pathways of
cellular respiration because the cell
already has more than enough ATP
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