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Lecture 19

BI110 Lecture 19: Biology Note 19 (module 27)

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Matthew Smith

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Module 27 – Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration Catabolizing fuel without Oxygen - Anaerobic respiration non-oxygen molecules (e.g. sulphate, nitrate) as electron receptors 25% less ATP than aerobic respiration - Fermentation endogenous molecules (e.g. pyruvate, acetaldehyde) as electron receptors 93% less ATP than aerobic respiration Anaerobic Respiration - Although they lack mitochondria, prokaryotes have respiratory electron transport chains, located on internal membranes - Many prokaryotes do aerobic respiration; some prokaryotes use a molecule other than O as a te2minal electron receptor possess anaerobic respiration sulphate, nitrate, and ferric ion are common electron acceptors Aside: chemolithotrophs use inorganic materials such as hydrogen sulphide and produce energy via anaerobic respiration. Deep sea hydothermal vents and diverse groups of organisms adapted to gaining energy from this unique environment. Organisms have evolved to use many different molecules for anaerobic respiration Pathways of respiration 1. Glycolysis – everything does thins 2. Pyruvate oxidation • From glucose to O2 is an aerobic respiration (anything living in an aerobic environment uses this) • If something is not using oxygen, then they are using anaerobic respiration (all prokaryotes) • Every organism does 1 of these 2 things (anaerobic or aerobic) 3. Fermentation – eukaryotes (yeast for making alcohol/bread) – prokaryotes use lactic acid fermentation ( bacteria for making yogurt, cheese) Dependency Upon Presence of Oxygen - If oxygen is present  citric acid cycle - If oxygen is not present  fermentation Fermentation - 2 lactic acid molecules per glucose a) Lactic acid fermentation - glucose  2 pyruvate -products = 2 NAD+, 2NADH -fermentation is from the pyruvate to the lactic acid -NADH gets oxidized to NAD+ -So the products of fermentation = lactic acid and NAD+ • Purpose of fermentation is to continue to supply glyocisis with
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