What is Canadian about media? January 13 2014
Mass Media in Canada
o CRTC governs mass communication in Canada
Canadian Broadcast Policy History:
o 1920’s : Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting
o 1932 : Canadian Radio Broadcast Act sets up public broadcaster: Canadian Radio Broadcasting
• public broadcaster: funded by the state making their own decisions about content must follow
guidelines set by government
o 1952 : CBC goes into public TV broadcasting
o Broadcasting Act of 1958: crates Board of Broadcast Governors (BBG)
• BBG initiates CanCon regulations
o 1960’s : advent of private TV and cable
o Broadcasting Act of 1968 :
Creates CRTC to replace BBG
o Broadcasting should be owned and controlled by Canadians
o Content should benefit Canadians
o Updated over the years
o 1999: digital exemption
Operationalization o how do we know which productions are classified as officially “Canadian”?
• ex: MAPL: at least two of music, artist, producer, artist
o how much content should be Canadian?
• Ex: broadcast radio, 6pm to 9pm, 35% Canadian content
• Ex: until recently, 2/3 of entertainment newscasts like ET Canada
Cancon Music Regulations
o MAPL criteria
Broadcast and telecom direct ownership
20% max direct foreign ownership
33% indirect foreign ownership through holding co
80% of directors must be Canadian
No nonCanadian boss
Limit tax deductions to domestic companies
Only 75% Canadian CEO’s can take advantage of this
Defunct: 80% excise tax on foreign magazines
Benefits of foreign ownership?
Break up of domestic concentration?
Infuse foreign Venture Capital
Convergence makes it all a moot point? Audiences January 20, 2014
o Everyone has an audienece Audiences January 20, 2014
• Kim K has 18.9 Million followers
• I have and audience on FB, Twitter, Insta
Audiences and Interaction
o Audiences are very different
• Ie. Symphony vs. rock concert
How to Study Audiences?
The mass medias purpose is to assemble audiences
Magazine audience would be assembled because of their common interest for hair and makeup etc.
“if you are not paying for what you are consuming, you yourself are the product”
are people defined by what they consume?
Are people defined by the audience they participate in?
Tracking Audiences :
AC Nielsen US TV
BBM – Canada TV
Nadbank – Canada Newspapers
Print Measurement Bureau – Canada Magazines
(Main bodies that track mass media in Canada) Audiences January 20, 2014
Why people join audiences:
Jenkins “Theory of YouTube”
“Hybrid media space” – Yochai Benkler
Meeting point for diverse participatory cultures
Amatures curate professional content
many to many communication
expected to expand Globalization & Digitalization January 27, 2014
“A global economy is