January 4/6th 2011
Fascinated with Places?
Boston – the highways underground, how did they build them and when?
The buildings – wanted to know about the history of them, who lived in
Fascination doesn‟t always mean that you are concerned with understanding.
Geographers look at that and then ask WHY. What explains what im seeing.
Human Geography Definition:
Examining and explaining the spatial distribution of human features and
activities, and impacts on the environment. (and people individually)
Often limit the studies to a certain extent: within certain places, regions,
“What is where, why there, and why care” – Charles Grizner
- hits on all three aspects of Geography.
What is where: Description.
Generic Elements: human Features, Patterns, Interacts
Tools: *Maps*, Tables, Diagrams, Text
Why there: is about explaining them/understanding
GE: Agents Process over time/space. Inter-relationships Tools: Stat Analysis, Conceptual Models, Mathematical Models
Why care: Impacts
Tools: Forecasting models, simulation (attempt too say this is going to
happen in the future)
Description Explanation Impacts
Crime in Vancouver Employment Negative Image:
Tools: Density Map Young Population Tourism
# of Physicians in Location and Population Equitability
Canada by Province More Physicians/Person
Tools: Stats, Tables, #
Historical Significance oEconomic History Raise Tourism Dollars.
Towns January 11, 2010 1/4/2011 1:19:00 PM
Mental Maps (MM)
cognitive images representing a persons perceptions, feelings, memories,
meanings and knowledge of a location
not just spatial knowledge!
what you see in your mind‟s eye when you think of a place/area
Mental Map Exercise:
Draw a place you had recently been.
What was sketched?
Maps Images Words
- key places/familiar - action shot of me on a - business names
ones lake - general locations
- natural landmarks - hawkers (sales ppl) - things you cant draw
- roads and pathways - building w/ titles Generic List
- cars - coffee cup/steaming - paths
-people - voice bubbles - districts
- labels - collection of things -boundaries
- edge/boundary - accident occuring
“Sketch Maps” in Practice
- a tool for representing a persons MM
- “sketch me a map of your neighbourhood” - tend to look like traditional maps and be:
Sketch Map Weaknesses
- too focused on nodes, routes & landmarks
- poorly capture:
meanings and experiences
interconnections of information
underlying creation process
- guided questions
- tell stories
- not call it a map
- start with a picture
- tablet computer
replay how you drew it, what came first and what came next.
- ask people to think aloud during experiments
What good are MM?
- Mental maps are the “true” basis for all human behaviour and activities
what are they important for, and who would use it given that it is the true
basis. January 13 th2011 1/4/2011 1:19:00 PM
Key Concepts in Human Geography
space: an area that varies with or without boundaries
location: a specific destination within a space
place: a location with a unique identity
region: a distinctive area within another place
LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION
- “close to”
- “about 2 blocks from”
- Latitude and Longitude
- angle it is away from the equator.
- angle E or W of prime meridian
GPS – Global Positioning System
How it works
24 satellites orbiting the earth triangulation
- you need 3 satellites at a minimum are needed
- more it uses the more accurate it is January 18 th 2011 1/4/2011 1:19:00 PM
Geographic Information & Geographic Information Systems
Modern Day Maps & Powerful Analysis Techniques
GIS = An automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis
and display of spatial data.
- take multiple layers of information and put them on top of each other so
you can see them laid out over space.
Ie. customers,streets, parcels, elevation, land usage
Types of Layers
Raster data = entire image can be broken down into grids which have
squares with some attribute. Ex. Elevation, land usage.
Vectors= points and lines in x & y coordinates. Vectors easier for analysis Ex
GIS “Primitive” Vector Data Types
- aka nodes
- can represent anything (city,person,etc)
- assign an X and a Y coordinate
- assign attributes which can be Qualitative or Quantitative
- have length, but no width
- bounded by points
- have attributes: length, flows
- have length and width
- bounded by lines
- have attributes: states, zones, bodies of water, building footprints - convey spatial distributions
- polygons with a 3 rddimension
- length, width & height
- used to represent: elevation, volume, buildings
- X, Y & Z coordinates
Where does all this data come from?
- satellite imagery
- aerial photography
- using ground truthing
GIS Data Analysis
- extract, overlay, proximity
- nearest, neighbor, spatial autocorrelation, etc.
- cost analysis, distance, decay, route layer
forecasting 1/4/2011 1:19:00 PM
Our world is divided especially because of spatial variation in culture
The world we live in today is one of the tremendous cultural diversity but it
is also one of the increasing interaction between cultures
what is culture?
- the way you live… life style, values, traditions
What is Student culture?
- studios the desire to learn
- desire for social needs
- partying –newly independent (freedom, youthfulness, intoxication)
- distinctive responsibilties (finances)
- self discovery
What is culture?:
Mentifacts = values, attitudes, religion, believes, language
Sociofacts= shared social norms, family structures, interpersonal
Artifacts = matherial things and symbolic, practice of life eg. Tools, religious
Acts= distinctive activities.
What is cultural Geography?
Place location landscape culture
It is the interaction between geography and culture.
Natural Process (geology, climate, vegetation Outcome Natural Enviro +
Cultural Processes outcome landscapes regions of distinctive cultural
landscapes arises January 25 th 2011 1/4/2011 1:19:00 PM
1Language and Religion
Key to any culture, and regional identity
affects both behaviour and landscape
- visible and symbolic ways (prominent first things you see)
Geography and Language?
Distribution and diffusions of languages.
- place marking (British, Australian, etc)
- used to describe our world
- preserves our ancestry, where somebody came from
- distinguishes sub-cultures
loss of language can handicap a cultures future
- sense of cultural identity
- ability to describe phenomena
Inuktitut Language Survival Video:
- What has led to potential language extinction?
-- western civilization: tv, books, video games, media. No funds to promote
the language. Resulting from globalization of media. No consistency in
writing language. Only teach the language up until grade 4.
- Could it be reversed? How?
-- can be taught to the newer generations. Place a greater importance on it.
Teach it in the home.
- Will standardization help or hinder? Be critical.
- What did the Greenland Inuit do to maintain their language?
-- produced 35 books/year educational, childrens books, school books and
original Greenlandic literature. Fought to kep it. Media, government, schools,
grocery stores, playground. Made a new law for schools was changed from
Danish to Greenlandic. Standardized their alphabet. Created a common
dialect. January 27 th 2011 1/4/2011 1:19:00 PM
Geography of Language – language diffusion.
How does it move over space, change and geographic reasons.
- commonly understood system of signs, gestures and vocal sounds
- regional variations in language
- change in language in a different area
- pronunciations, grammar, vocabulary
Most recent: “hybridized” dialects
- combining of two languages
- spanglish, denglish
- epitome of globalization/spread of English language
Niarobi Video (6 minutes)
Swahili + English = sheng
- rural urban migration, people with multiple dialects
- transit hot bed helped to diffuse the place.
- politicians to include the youth and make a connection.
- media: billboards songs
i. What spatial process led to “sheng”
ii. who uses it? Why?
- younger people.
Iii. why is it growing?
- taking two common languages and mixing them together.
Geography & Religion: Dividing Cultures
Religion not only has a direct impact o n landscape, but can dramatically
divide cultures spatially. - cultures are clashing, religious tensions grow until people build walls
between each other, fight or holy distinct neighbourhoods and creates a lot
Video: Tibet Context
1950: China invades, exile the Dalai Lama
Religious oppressions ensues: wanted Tibet to assimilate with China & ever
since then there has been tension.
- what belief is core to the Dalai Lama?
-- use your heart to make decisions and not force
- Why are Tibet protests spreading over space?
-- trying to spread it so other people will see it (around the time of the
Olympics in China) other people started to take up the cause and
sympathize what was going on and protested as well.
- What attempts are being made to “water down” religion over space?
-- to mix cultures the government tried to get people from other areas of
china to move to Tibet. Settle in the Tibet area to assimilate and less desire
for that area to want to spread apart. Harder to split away when you have
become a “melting pot”
Video: The Wall
- security barrier between Israel and Palestinian-occupied territories in the
West Bank. February 1 2011 st 1/4/2011 1:19:00 PM
Canadian division helped build the 1990 Moscow McDonald‟s. Was the
largest chain to date and still is. It was hard to source all the inputs from the
surrounding areas. More then 120 countries have McDonald‟s. They train
more people then the US Army.
Agriculture and Agricultural Work
3% of People in Canada are considered farmers.
Most of Westernized countries have low rates oppose to developing countries
Few people it takes to produce the more people can do other things.
423 and 188 in textbook. How well a country is off.
Geography and Agriculture?
- The science and business of cultivation of crops and livestock
Geographers focus on:
- describing transformation of land/env.
- examining how food gets to our plates
- explaining location of agricultural activites
Agricultural Practices: A Brief History of Land Transformation
Hunting and Gathering: hunting animals, fishing, gathering fruits, roots,
nuts, etc. You will become physically fit. The food is more nutritious without
pesticides, preservatives and more varied diet. Not exposed to animal born
diseases. Limited impact on the environment.
Subsistence Agriculture: just for you and your family
- Farming for direct consumption only
- domestication of plants and animals enabled settlements
Commercial Agriculture: Farming for sale.
Agricultural Revolution 1st 2 nd 3rd
~10,000 BC ~1650 AD 20TH