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GG294 September 27.docx

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Barbara Carmichael

GG294 September 27, 2013 First quiz – open book 6 multiple choice questions in 7 minutes The Evolution of Tourism Introduction -Evolution of tourism generally studied from a Western – European perspective “We know remarkably little about the history of leisure in cultures such as China, India, and Japan and it is hard to believe that forms of tourism did not exist in the past in these societies” (Towner) Ancient World -Sumerians (Babylonians) development of money by Sumerians and development of trade beginning about 4000 BC -Egyptians – organised cruises, pyramids were tourist sites – graffiti, acquired souvenirs, drank wines -Greeks – Olympic games, resorts -Romans – roads used roads to visit temples, pyramids, monuments, Greece, Olympic games, baths, seaside resorts, used guidebooks, bought souvenirs Beginning of Tourism: Road Travel -Early Roads -Minoan roads on the island of Crete (2000 to 1500 BC) Beginning of Tourisms: Romans -Roman Empire -Romans sought to escape the cities in summer -Moved to seaside and hillside villas -Coliseum in Rome, 300 thousand capacity -Souvenirs, catering, popular mass culture Beginning of Tourism: Greeks Tourism in Ancient Greece -Popular with Romans Olympic Games (originated in 776 BC), seaside resorts, theatrical productions) -Also left graffiti -Pausanias (a Greek) wrote a guidebook Visiting sanctuaries -included temples, statues, walks in beautiful settings -especially for the god Aesciepius (A Greek hero who later become the Greek god of medicine and healing) Beginning of Tourism: Asia The Silk Road -Route through which silk was traded from China through Persia to the Mediterranean -Also traded precious stones and metals, furs, foods and textiles th -Marco Polo’s account in 13 century Beginning of Tourism -Crusades expeditions between (1095-1291) -Wars to regain control of the holy land from Muslims -Crusaders returned home with stories and ideas about Europe – generated interest in travel Beginning of Tourism: The Pilgrimage -500 AD – Fall of the Roman Empire -Roads fall into disrepair -Travel becomes dangerous and difficult -Undertaken largely on foot -Travel undertaken for purposes of trade or religion only -Rise of pilgrimages -Travel endured rather than enjoyed “TRAVAIL”! E.g Camino de Santiago Beginnings of Tourism: Middle Ages Medieval Travel -Pilgrimages to see landmarks -Took pieces as souvenirs -Locals sold small flasks inscribed with the name of the place Early Roots of Commercialism -Drinking (taverns) -Gambling (wagers on rough sports and tavern games) -Prostitution -Circuses, travelling entertainers, fairgrounds Beginning of Tourism The Grand Tour: th th -16 and 17 centuries -travel as an essential part of a young man’s education -aristocratic young men in the presence of their tutors -cultural and political education on a prescribed route -France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands The Grand Tour -Some artists were commissioned by these male travelers to paint portraits of various “cultured” tourist attractions -Many paintings of famous sites (Venice, Paris, Rome…) and rural landscapes (river banks, rolling hills) -To remind…. Beginnings of Modern Tourism -Many features similar to tourism today Travel Habits -Souvenirs -Travellers sought antiques and souvenirs -Accommodations -Some stayed in hostels, monasteries -Government officials may have stayed in temples or government buildings Events -cities put on elaborate religious and civic festivals public processions Food -contrasts between British (solid and substantial and French (insubstantial and lacking in meat) food -written accounts include criticism of other countries foods but also surprised comments on good food Unruly Behaviour -British tourists were no
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